Device-to-Device Communication as an Underlay to Lte-Advanced Networks

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  • Topic: Session Initiation Protocol, Radio resource management, Cellular network
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  • Published : April 4, 2013
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Device-to-Device Communication as an
Underlay to LTE-Advanced Networks
Klaus Doppler, Mika Rinne, Carl Wijting, Cássio B. Ribeiro, and Klaus Hugl, Nokia Research Center

In this article device-to-device (D2D) communication underlaying a 3GPP LTE-Advanced cellular network is studied as an enabler of local
services with limited interference impact on the
primary cellular network. The approach of the
study is a tight integration of D2D communication into an LTE-Advanced network. In particular, we propose mechanisms for D2D communication session setup and management
involving procedures in the LTE System Architecture Evolution. Moreover, we present numerical results based on system simulations in an interference limited local area scenario. Our
results show that D2D communication can
increase the total throughput observed in the
cell area.

Major effort has been put in recent years on the
development of Third Generation Partnership
Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE),
which provides Evolved Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) terrestrial
radio access (EUTRA) and EUTRA network
(EUTRAN) technology for higher data rates
and system capacity, and the System Architecture Evolution (SAE) for efficient networking and cost saving operation.
3GPP has recently defined a further study
item for LTE-Advanced, which shall prepare
new technology components for LTE to meet
the IMT-Advanced requirements, also in the
local area scenario. IMT-Advanced will offer
high bandwidths up to 100 MHz for higher data
rates, global operation, and economy of scale to
support a wide range of services. Such future
radio access systems will be scalable in terms of
carrier bandwidth and carrier frequencies on
various spectrum bands [1]. This article introduces a technology component for LTEAdvanced that has so far not been considered sufficiently: device-to-device (D2D) communication as an underlay to cellular networks. In recent years wireless local area networks

(WLANs) have become increasingly popular, as
they enable access to the Internet and local services with low-cost infrastructure, and cheap and fast access to the spectrum in the license exempt
bands. However, operation on a licensed band


0163-6804/09/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

has benefits, as it can guarantee a planned (interference) environment instead of an uncoordinated one. Hence, it could be more convenient for local service providers to make investment decisions based on access to the licensed spectrum compared to the unlicensed spectrum. However,

the access should be granted with small enough
expenses, not comparable to the license fees of
cellular operators.
A cellular operator may offer such a cost efficient access to the licensed spectrum enabled by D2D communication as a controlled or constrained underlay to an IMT-Advanced cellular network, as we earlier proposed in [2]. In this

article we present the necessary additions to an
LTE-Advanced network to enable D2D session
setup and management. We outline a solution
for a D2D session setup using dedicated signaling and automatic handover of network routed traffic to D2D links between nearby (proximity)
devices. Furthermore, we present the interference coordination mechanisms that enable underlay D2D communication and present
results on the achievable D2D throughput in a
worst case interference limited local area scenario.
The concept of D2D communication as an
underlay to a cellular network, operating on the
same resources, is illustrated in Fig. 1. Besides
cellular operation, where user equipment (UE)
is served by the network via the base stations,
called evolved NodeBs (eNBs) in the LTE architecture, UE units may communicate directly with each other over the D2D links. The UE in D2D
connections remains controlled by the eNBs and
continue cellular operation....
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