Deviant behavior- these are the types of behavior wherein it stray from the accepted norms, beliefs, or values of the group. Deviance is relative - what is deviant for one group may be accepted to other group. Various theories on defiance that have been formulated to explain its occurrence. This focuses on against the sociocultural processes and structural organization of the society. BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION- that deviant behavior stems from one's physical or biological makeup. Cesare Lembroso(1911)- that some people are born criminals and have abnormally large jaws, high cheekbones, good eyesight, and insensibility to pain. - This study is limited to the criminals in prison.
PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH - stresses that deviant behavior is a result of personality disorder or maladjustment that develops during childhood or failure to structure one's behavior in an orderly way. SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH
Functionalist Perspective - Stresses the rapid social changes in norms, values and life-style that increase the opportunities like drug use, crime and mental illness. Emile Durkheim- deviance is a natural part of all societies and serves important functions. For ex. Rules are strengthened as deviant behavior is punished and clarifies their meaning. Durkheim(1897)- that there is a desirable normative structure, but in times of rapid social change, variety of conflicting norms give rise to a condition which he calls anomie or a state of "normlessness". Robert K. Merton (1968) - that deviance as the result of anomic in contemporary modern society like Unites States. Control theory by Walter Reckless (1967) - explains the occurrence of deviance but is largely applicable to delinquency, youth crime, and suicide. - asserts that deviance and conformity are both learned in the same process of socialization whereby one acquires norms, social roles, and self-concept. Conflict theory by Hortob and Hunt(1985)- focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the differential...
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