Developmental Psychology and Correct Answer

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Tut 201

Question 1
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The correct answer is (3)-physical,psychosocial and cognitive domains. These domains are described in the question: in the question's first sentence development in the physical domain includes maturation and growth of the body and brain(p.10 & p. 426 of the prescribed book). In the second and third sentences in the example the psychosocial effects [ie psychological ( sense of self worth) and social (peer group interaction) of Janes early maturation (p.426) are described-not only the effects in the psychological domain of development as stated in answer (2). Her ability to Judge ,reason and understand people and social norms (p.454) referred to in the fourth and fifth sentences,relate to changes or development in the cognitive domain (p.10,p.33). (You will find the information to answer this question on pages 9 to 10 ,33,426, and 454 of the prescribed book.) Note that Janes experience is also a good example of the interrelatedness of development in the various domains and emphasises the fact that " development is a unified process" (p10).

Question 2
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The correct answer is (2)-see the discussion in the last paragraph of page 18 of the prescribed book. Note that the ansser is based on what the researchers found in their studies. The answer in (2) does not describe plasticity but genetically or biologically determined or intrinsic behaviour. The answer in (3) is partially based on Erikson's theory of spontaneous recovery. Erikson did not refer to critical or sensitive periods as such.

Question 3
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The correct answer is (2) and can be found i table 1-1 on page 11 of the prescribed book. The question relates to periods when children's physical development is the most vulnerable to environmental influences. Aspects in the environment will always influence development in all the domains in the five periods of child development, but at certain periods the influences will be more critical for physical development of specifically the brain and other body structures and organs. Question 4

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The correct answer is (1)(see pp. 29-30 of the prescribed book). In the note at the bottom of page 29 it is stated that Erikson changed the word 'crisis' to "conflicting or competing tendencies". This knowledge will help students to understand the idea of a "crisis" between the positive and negative traits and the necessity to find a balance between the two traits, for example, trust versus mistrust. Reference to physical maturation in (2) relates to Erikson's view maturational timetable. However, he did not focus on or explain the effect of physical maturation as such. The time when specific physical maturation occurs only determines the time when certain psychosocial developments take place. Alternative (2) is therefore incorrect. Alternative (3) is also incorrect because Erikson did not refer to "developmental issues" in the place of "crisis" . His theory also did not give attention to interpersonal relationships as such, but to the individual's development as influenced by social and cultural influences. Question 5

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The correct answer is (3) 9 see Papalia et al., 2008,pp.28-50). The fact that different cohorts are studied eliminates the problem of results being confounded by cohorts effects -therefore the correct answer is (3). The answer in (1) is incorrect since one of the advantages of cross-sectional studies is that it is not time-consuming( Table 2-5 on p. 50). The answer in (2) is also incorrect. Although a criticism of cross-sectional studies is that "it may overlook individual differences by focusing on group averages". (p.49), sequential studies do not overcome this problem -age groups (although of different cohorts or generations) are also studied. Question 6

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The correct answer is (2) since correct statements with regard to reaction...
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