DUE: March 31st, 2011 Questions for DEV BIOL 561: These questions will serve as your attendance for today and as your March problem set. Use your notes and books to answer the questions below. You are not to work in groups!

1. Explain the Tetralogy of Fallot and its major defects. Also explain how each defect may cause abnormal heart functions.

A congenital malformation of the heart characterized by a defect in the ventricular septum, misplacement of the origin of the aorta, narrowing of the pulmonary artery, and enlargement of the right ventricle.

2. A child is born with severe craniofacial defects and transposition of the great vessels. What cell population may play a role in both abnormalities, and what type of insult might have produced this effect?

3. A prenatal ultrasound of a 35-year-old woman in her 12th week of gestation reveals an abnormal image of the fetal heart. Instead of a four-chambered view provided by the typical cross, a portion just below the crosspiece is missing. What structures constitute the cross, and what defect does this infant probably have?

4. What portion of the heart is derived from the bulbis cordis?

5. Later in her pregnancy, a woman realizes that she was probably exposed to thalidomide in the workplace during the third week of gestation but tells a fellow worker that she is not concerned about her baby because the placenta protects her infant from toxic factors by acting as a barrier. Is she correct? What potential birth defect(s) may her unborn child develop? Is exposure to this chemical at the 3rd week create more concern than if the exposure would have occurred at the 30th week?

...Biology 425: Immunology- ProblemSet 1
2015 Spring Semester
Instructor: Daniel Prantner
Please answer the following questions as concisely as possible. The assignment is worth a
total of 75 points with each question worth 10 points except for the first question, which
is worth 15 points. Feel free to talk about these problems amongst your classmates, but
each individual person must turn in their own problemset. If you choose to work with
someone else on this problemset, please indicate the name of that person(s) somewhere
on your assignment.
1) During the course of the class, we have discussed many types of innate immune
proteins called Pathogen Recognition Receptors that allow the cells of the innate immune
system to recognize conserved Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns on invading
microorganisms. These PRRs are listed below. For each PRR, list the specific PAMP
recognized, its classification (E-Extracellular, M-Membrane bound, ME-Membrane
bound in endosome, or C-cytosolic), whether it is involved in phagocytosis (yes or no),
whether it is triggers intracellular signaling pathways (yes or no), and whether it causes
cytokine production upon PAMP recognition (yes or no). (15 points)
PRR
C-Reactive Protein
C1qrs
Dectin-1
Defensins
Ficolin
fMLP receptor
Lysozyme
MBL
MDA5
NOD1
NOD2
RIG-I
TLR2:TLR1
TLR2:TLR6
TLR3
TLR4
TLR5
TLR7
TLR8
TLR9
PAMP
Class
Phago...

...Me1
ProblemSet #2
The US College Enrollment and the “Third Law of Demand”
A theorem proposed by Professors Alchian and Allen in their text, University Economics (1964) has had several rebirths of interest in the literature. The so-called “third law of demand,” or “relative price theorem,” holds that a fixed cost added to a good of varying quality causes the consumer to prefer the category considered of higher quality to the lower.
Recently a number of studies, keeping this theorem in mind have looked into a relationship between the ratio of public to private enrollment and unemployment in cross-sectional as well as in time series data. Part of the full cost of participating in higher education is foregone employment income. In their regression model, these studies have regressed the public/private ENROLLMENT RATIO (as an indicator of relevant demand) against UNEMPLOYMENT RATES (as an indicator of cost) as well as a number of variables designed to account for “other things” which tend to vary at the same time, such as income, financial aid and tuition ratios. Tuition ratio is typically specified as the ratio of the full cost (including forgone employment income) of public higher education (Pa) to private higher education (Pb), where Pa is less than Pb.
In Table 1, below, a cross-sectional model reveals the relationships between relative education demands by public and private university students (as measured by state level ENROLLMENT...

...Yue
Office: KRAN B024A
Office Hours: Monday 12 noon-1 pm &Tuesday 9-10 am.
Phone: 496-1458 email: kyue@purdue.edu
Course goal: We provide a broad overview of the microeconomic aspects of the international economy. We emphasize the development of analytical tools. We also show how we can apply these tools to questions with real-world relevance.
Prerequisites:
Econ 251, Econ 252 (Principles of Microeconomics, Principles of Macroeconomics)
Textbook:
1. Feenstra and Taylor, “International Trade”, 2nd Edition. We follow the textbook very closely in class and cover about 70% of its contents.
2. Yeaple, Study Guide for Feenstra and Taylor’s International Trade, 2nd Edition. We take many practice problems from the Study Guide.
5 copies of the textbook (2nd edition) and 5 copies of the Study Guide (2nd edition) are on reserve at Parrish (the management-and-econ library).
Distribution of homework and other materials:
Katalyst - https://webapps.krannert.purdue.edu/kap/
Course Grades:
Quizzes (best 5 out of 6) 30%
Homework Assignments (best 3 of 4) 25%
Extra Credit Questions 10%
Midterm (in class) 20%
Final Exam 25%
Dates for Quizzes, Homework Assignments, Review Sessions and Exams:
These dates are fixed and will not change. See the class calendar.
Course Materials:
This should be regarded as a likely (but not 100%-certain) schedule as some topics may run shorter or longer than...

...EC 109
Autumn 2011
Dr. Mani
ProblemSet 2
Due Date: Oct31, Monday – between 9 & 11 AM in room S 2.132
Please keep a copy of your assignment and show all your work clearly.
(1) Mr. J. Bond, a retired movie actor, consumes only grapes and the composite good Y (i.e. price of Y is £1). His income consists of £10000 a year from his investment fund plus the proceeds of whatever he sells of the 2000 bushels of grapes he harvests annually from his vineyard in Tuscany. Last year, grapes sold at £2 per bushel and Bond consumed all 2000 bushels of his grapes, in addition to 10,000 units of Y. This year, the price of grapes is £3 per bushel (and the price of the composite good Y is the same as before). If Bond has well-behaved preferences, will his consumption of grapes this year be greater than, less than or the same as last year’s? How about his consumption of the composite good? (Hint: Graph both years’ budget constraints and think about whether last year’s bundle is affordable to Mr. R).
(2) Suppose Carmela’s income is £100 per week, which she allocates between sandwiches and books. Sandwiches cost £2 each. Books cost £10 each if she purchases between 1 and 5 books. If she purchases more than 5 books in a week, the price falls to £5 for the 6th book and all subsequent books. Draw the budget constraint. Is it possible that Carmela might have more than...

...Energy
1. A man climbs on to a wall that is 5 m high and gains 2200 J of potential energy. What is the mass of the man?
Given: Formula:
h = 5 m m = PE/gh
PE = 2200 J
Solution:
m = 2200 J / (9.8 m/s2 x 5 m)
m = 49 kg
2. Calculate the kinetic energy of a 500 kg car travelling at 50 m/s.
Given: Formula:
m = 500 kg KE = mv2/2
v = 50 m/s
Solution:
KE = 500 kg x (50 m/s)2 / 2
KE = 625 000 J
Power
3. Riley climbs a flight of stairs in 3 minutes. If he weighs 700 N and the stairs is 20 m from the ground, how much power will she develop?
Given: Formula:
t = 3 mins = 180 s P = Wd/t
W = 700 N
d = 20 m
Solution:
P = 700 N x 20 m / 180 s
P = 77.8 J/s
4. How much power is developed by a car that runs 80 m/s when the force is equal to 50 000 N.
Given: Formula:
V = 80 m/s W = Fv
F = 50 000 N
Solution:
W = 50 000 N x 80 m/s
W = 4 000 000 J/s
Electricity
5. Charges of 6 and + 4 nC are 3 m apart. Determine the force they exert on each other, and the electric field at a point midway between them.
Given: Formula:
k = 9 x 109 Felec = k q1 q2 /r2
q1 = 6 x 109 C
q2 = 4 x 109 C
r = 3 m
Felec = (9 x 109)(6 x 109)(4 x 109)/32
Felec = 24 x 109 N
6. A 50 cm piece of nichrome wire is used in a home heating element. The cross sectional area of the wire is 0.05 mm2. What is the resistance of the heating element? If it is operated on household current (110 V),...

...BE 13.8
Vertical analysis (common-size) percentages for Vallejo Company’s sales, cost of goods sold, and expenses are listed below:
VERTICAL ANALYSIS 2012 2011 2010
Sales 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Cost of goods sold 60.5 62.9 64.8
Expenses 26.0 26.6 27.5
Net Income 13.5 10.5 7.7
Did Vallejo’s net income as a percent of sales increase, decrease, or remain unchanged over the 3 year period. Provide numerical support for your answer.
Sales – Cost of Goods Sold – Expenses = Net Income
100 – 64.8 – 27.5 = 7.7 for 2010
100 – 62.9 – 26.6 = 10.5 for 2011
100 – 60.5 – 26.0 = 13.5 for 2012
During the 3 year period of 2010-2012, the net income increased as a percent of sales for the Vallejo Company due to the decrease as a percent of sales in both the cost of goods sold and expenses every year.
BE 13.9
Horizontal analysis (trend-analysis) percentages for Spartan Company’s sales, cost of goods sold, and expenses are listed below:
VERTICAL ANALYSIS 2012 2011 2010
Sales 96.2% 104.8% 100.0%
Cost of goods sold 101.0 98.0 100
Expenses 105.6 95.4 100
Net Income (110.4) (88.6) 0
Explain whether Spartan’s net income as a percent of sales increase, decrease, or remain unchanged over the 3 year period.
Sales – Cost of Goods Sold – Expenses = Net Income
100 – 100 – 100 = 0.0 for 2010
104.8 – 98.0– 95.4 = -88.6 for 2011
96.2 – 101.0 – 105.6 = -110.4 for 2012
In 2010, the net income for the Spartan Company is 0. In 2011, the company’s net income decreased as a percent of...

...GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY
ProblemSet No. 1
Answered by: Andrea Rose A. Fajardo of BSFT 2-1N
1. Calculate the pH of a dilute solution that contains a molar ratio of potassium acetate to acetic acid (pKa=4.76) of:
a. 2:1
pH = 4.76 + log[2]/[1]
= 4.76 + 0.3010
= 5.06
b. 1:4
pH = 4.76 + log[1]/[4]
= 4.76 + (-0.6021)
= 4.16
c. 6:5
pH = 4.76 + log[6]/[5]
= 4.76 + 0.0792
= 4.81
d. 2:3
pH = 4.76 + log[2]/[3]
= 4.76 + (-0.1761)
= 4.58
e. 9:1
pH = 4.76 + log[9]/[1]
= 4.76 + 0.9542
= 5.71
2. A buffer contains 0.01mol of lactic acid (pKa=3.86) and 0.05mol of sodium lactate per liter.
a. What is the resulting pH of the buffer?
pH = 3.86 + log[0.05]/[0.01]
= 3.86 + 0.6990
= 4.56
b. Calculate the change in pH when 5mL of 0.5M HCl is added to 1L of buffer.
5mL of 0.5 mol/L
5mL * 1L/1000mL = 0.005L
0.005L * 0.5 mol/L = 0.0025mol
NaC3H5O3 = 0.05mol - 0.0025mol = 0.0475
C3H5O3 = 0.01mol - 0.0025mol =0.0075
pH = 3.86 + log[0.0475]/[0.0075]
= 3.86 + 0.8016
= 4.66
• 4.55-4.66 = 0.11 is the change in pH
c. What pH change would you expect if you added the same quantity of HCl to 1L of pure...

...
Aim: To construct a field graph to study the local ecosystem at the Minnamurra estuary involving abiotic factors, transects and abundance.
Method:
Measuring abiotic factors
1. Measure the elevation along the transect line in centimetres using an inclinometer in each quadrat.
2. Measure the soil temperature in degrees using a thermometer by placing it in the ground in the quadrat.
3. Measure the air temperature in degrees using a thermometer by holding it up in the air just above the ground in the quadrat.
4. Measure the wind speed in knots using an anemometer held up in the air in the quadrat.
5. Measure the soil moisture in the quadrat using a soil moisture probe. Soil moisture is represented in a percentage 1%-100% with 100% being the maximum amount of moisture.
6. Measure the amount of sunlight in the quadrat using a lux meter.
Calculating the abundance of animals across the mangroves and salt marsh
1. Place a quadrat somewhere in the shoreward edge of the intertidal zone
2. Align the quadrat with a compass so that one side faces north and the other faces south.
3. Calculate the area of the quadrat in metres squared.
4. Calculate the abundance by first, finding the area of the quadrat in m2. Total number of individuals in each quadrat and the total number of quadrats. Average number of individuals per quadrat = total no. Individuals ÷ total no. Quadrats.
5. Estimation of abundance = Average no. Individuals per quadrat x Area of quadrat....