Anna could possibly be affected by genetic predispositions for mental illness issues that cluster around similar markers for hereditary alcoholism on her father's side. Additionally, being conceived in and spending her prenatal months in a poor, heavily industrial area could also make her vulnerable to various physical or mental illnesses often associated with her demographic. On the other hand, some Eastern European genes could lend Anna some extraordinary genetic resilience and a formidable constitution and temperament. Alcoholism (and perhaps its underlying pathologies) has been shown to skip generations. Anna was also born with white privilege, part of society's dominant group.
Unfortunately, on the nurture side, Anna's development has been impacted by risk factors that far outweigh the impact of protective factors. Hauser (1999) demonstrated that young adults who suffered traumas as adolescents made better adjustments the higher their levels of protection were. Father absence, low parent education, low income and maternal depression are all risk factors associated with poor academic performance. (Gutman, Sameroff, and Eccles (2002). Proximal processes for Anna appear to be restricted, confounded and confusing. She is innocently caught in dynamics that certainly frustrate her selfobject needs and make effectively engaging her environment difficult. Distal processes include a culture and likely school system not designed to target Anna for a battery of protective measures and interventions that will allow her any measure of developmental equifinality.
2. Can you predict outcomes? Consider issues of continuity and change.
Prevention science is an approach to developmental psychology meant to increase the probability of predicting undesirable outcomes and finding ways to prevent...