Development Studies: Summary of Key Issues Raised in the African Development Report 2012

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MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF KENYA
BACHELORS, PURCHASING AND SUPPLIES MANAGEMENT
2ND YEAR, 1ST SEMESTER

DEVELPOMENT STUDIES AND ETHICS
BUS-243-033/2011

QUESTION
THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT, 2012
1. HIGHLIGHT KEY ISSUES RAISED IN THE REPORT
2. IN YOUR OPINION, SUGGEST POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE ISSUES RAISED ABOVE

INTRODUCTION
Hunger and starvation in sub-Saharan Africa have been the major problem facing most contries in the sub-Saharan countries. But Africans are not consigned to a lifetime of food insecurity since knowledge, technology and resources for closing the food security deficit are available today, and breakthroughs continue to emerge from research and development. But distributing better seeds and more fertilizer to African farmers and then to walk away nor will economic growth alone solve the problem. The failures that add up to food insecurity are pervasive, from agricultural, health, education and nutrition policies to research, extension services, sanitation, local government, commerce and transport. An effective response to a challenge this broad cannot be narrowed to a single intervention, discipline or institutional mandate. It will take a coordinated response across sectors. This Africa Human Development Report argues that sustainable increases in agricultural productivity protect the ability of people to access food. Furthering human development requires nutrition policies that unleash the potential of today’s and future generations.

THE AFRICAN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT, 2012 DISCUSSED
The report came at a time when food security is a big concern across the African governments and developing countries. Currently, close to 12 billion people across the world face food shortages. Sub-Sahara is most affected with about 30% of its total population facing food shortages and also suffers from hunger and malnutrition. The report also discusses the main source of food shortages in Africa; decades of poor governance that led to poor policy formulation that should have ensured food availability across the board. Greed by politicians who were out to enrich themselves left most people faced with really serious food problems. The report also blamed food insecurity on poor infrastructure across the Sub-Saharan countries. Without developed infrastructure, it is hard to connect areas with food to areas without thus most people without access to food have to face this problem. Let us look at the key issues raised in the report:

1. Food security
Food security is defined as “the condition when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Food security in Africa has been a luxury for many who have been faced with hunger and malnutrition over the years especially in war-torn and famine-stricken countries. These have made many to die of hunger; many have been killed during wars. This has left many families dependent on food relief programs which are not assured on a daily basis. Possible solutions to the above issue:

i) Governments should strive to end wars in their countries and provide atmospheres conducive for agriculture and other activities to go on to ensure food security. ii) Governments should provide incentives to farmers in war-torn and hunger stricken countries to help them grow food and ensure food security. iii) Resilience should be enhanced throughout to help relieve pressure on food systems and allow even food production and distribution. iv) Empowerment of people should be enhanced to encourage widening of the food security base among people. 2. Human development

Human development is defined as the expansion of capabilities, that is, the freedoms that people have to lead lives they value. Human development is greatly influenced by nutrition of persons since malnourished individuals cannot partake in activities...
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