As practitioners working with children, there is a great deal that must be known, it is important that there is an understanding of the different aspects of development and also a greater understanding between the sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference of the two is important. The physical growth and development growth of children underpins other aspects of their development, the two go hand in hand and it can often be difficult to separate one from another.
1) Aspects of development
The different aspects of development which are all very important are as follows:
Physical development is where children increase in all physical skills which include fine motor skills - this is the ability to perform small, accurate movements i.e. using their hands to be able to eat, draw, dress, play and write among many other things, gross motor skills - is the ability to move the whole body well using large groups of muscles to sit, stand, walk and run, and locomotive skills which is keeping balance, changing positions and walking correctly. The physical development area allows children to become more independent.
Communication/Language development is where children learn the skills to communicate with others which include non-verbal communication, spoken language also included, is gestures, body language, reading and understanding what others say.
Cognitive/Intellectual development is the area which processes thinking and understanding which includes learning, remembering, problem solving, reasoning, concentration, memory, imagination and creativity.
Social development is the growth and ability to relate and interact with others, having relationships with family, friends and teachers also cooperating with others appropriately and become independent within a social framework.
Emotional development is the growth and ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions appropriately such as happiness, fear, excitement, affection, worry, sadness anger, pride, jealousy, shyness and many more, including those about oneself.
Behavioural development is the growth and ability to act and relate in a specific way both acceptably and unacceptably.
Moral development is about the decisions that children and young people take, the principles they adopt and their behaviour towards others. It is a sub-set of social and emotional development.
1) The development of children 0-19 years of age
| |Physical |Cognitive |Communication |Social, emotional and |Moral | | | | | |behavioural | | | |Reflexes – Swallowing, |Recognises the smell |Cries to make their |Close contact when | | |Birth |Sucking, Rooting, |and voice of their |needs know. Eg when |feeding, needs to feel | | | |Grasping, Startling, |mother. |hungry, tired or |calm and safe. | | | |Walking, Standing. | |distressed. | | | |1 Month |Less curled and less |Stops crying when |Starts cooing when |Starts smiling when | | | |startled. |hears a familiar |happy. |asleep and awake. | | | | |voice. | | | | |3 Months |Lift and turn their |Start to notice |Will smile back when |More settled in routines| | | |heads and possible hold...