Development of Phobias

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Analyse different explanations of the development of phobias (use at least three perspectives)
By Eftychia Marathia
Everyone has experienced a feeling of anxiety at one time or another in their lives. It may have been when one deals with issues of work, school, or relationships with family, friends, or significant others. One may also have felt fear about something in particular. For example, fear of heights, closed spaces, or spiders. In the field of psychology there are several different theories of the motivation of phobias. In this assignment, the cognitive, biological and learning perspectives on the motivation of fear and anxiety will be discussed. There is an overall basic distinction between fear and anxiety. Anxiety is a vague unpleasant emotional state with qualities of apprehension, dread, distress, and uneasiness. In addition to these, it is objectless. Phobias are similar to anxiety except that phobias have a specific object. When some optimal level of stimulation or arousal is exceeded, one experiences anxiety. It can be an adaptive healthy response or a debilitating one. In the latter case mentioned, one may lose a large measure of ability to think, act and perform. Anxiety is manifested in three ways: in physiological reactions (biological and inherited), in a person’s thoughts (cognitive) and actions (behavioral). Under the biological perspective, there are three basic conditions which elicit anxiety: overstimulation, cognitive incongruity and response unavailability. Overstimulation refers to a situation in which a person is flooded with information. Cognitive incongruity is when a person has difficulty reconciling with some event, for example, the loss of a loved one. Response unavailability refers to a difficult situation, which a person does not know how to handle. According to the biological theory, the GABA system is responsible for the motivation of phobias and anxiety. GABA is known as Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid, it is a naturally...
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