To unite Irish Catholics into a unified political movement and secure Catholic emancipation.
Catholic rent to foster a sense of involvement and loyalty and to raise funds for the movement.
Mobilised support through the Catholic Church, who gave their support to the movement.
‘awakened the political consciousness of the Irish masses’ . Wrenched Catholic Emancipation from a hostile government and king. Associated nationalism with Catholicism – limited possible support right from the start.
The Repeal Association
To secure a repeal of the Union. However, O’Connell was committed to the British connection and was not fighting for independence. Repeal Rent
The Irish people were not really interested in repeal of the Union, especially after 1845 when the Famine swept through Ireland – a starving and tired people could hardly have much interest in a political movement that had so little chance of success
They looked back to Wolfe Tone and their ultimate aim was independence for Ireland. However, under the influence of Finton Laylor who argued that ……… and they also committed to land reform.
Violent Rebellion (1848)
The rebellion was a complete failure, but the Young Ireland movement left an important legacy.
An independent Ireland
Violence – ultimately, a mass rebellion like that of Wolfe Tone. The Fenians were always a minority in the national movement, and their actions tended to arouse hostility rather than admiration in Ireland. However, their atrocities in the 60’s motivated men like Gladstone into a program of reform for Ireland. This was perhaps their most surprising and unintended legacy.
However, the Fenian movement stayed alive throughout the period, and was ready to play an important role in the revival of republicanism after 1914, and played an important role in the 1916 Rising.
Butt founds the Home Rule Party
Self-government – he was committed to the British connection. Parliamentary pressure
Butt was a complete failure. He did not command a sense of loyalty either from the Irish population or his party. His leadership and authority was poor, and many members of his party were not committed Home Rulers. He had a great deal of respect for the House of Commons, but no one paid him any attention in parliament, and many laughed at him.
New Departure – the causes of land reform and HR were united in one national movement To settle all areas of Irish grievance, but ultimately:
A combination of constitutional and extra-parliamentary methods: Land war
Pressure in Parliament
Second Land Act - ineffective
Made Home Rule a realistic possibility
Parnell takes over the leadership of the Irish Parliamentary Party
A more effective party, with a more authoritarian leadership and more discipline. Home Rule.
Parnell centralised authority, and in 1882, all members had to sign an oath of allegiance to the party. The party was united under Parnell’s leadership and it became a far more formidable parliamentary force. The greatest Irish movements were united under his leadership.
Second Land Act
To destroy the ‘raison d’etre’ of the LL. Less an economic policy than a political stroke.
Granted the 3 F’s and thus all of the demands of the LL. It did not solve the real problems in Irish agriculture
Put Parnell in a dilemma
In the long term, rents were reduced through the land courts
Parnell is imprisoned
To ensure that he did not wreck the land act by opposing it. He became a martyr, and his popularity grew. Violence increased.
Kilmainham Treaty Parnell replaces the Land League with the National League To stop increase and spread of violence. The National League was to replace the LL and become the electoral...