A thesis presented to the faculty of the Russ Engineering and Technology of Ohio University the Russ College ofCollege of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science

John C. Rankin November 2005

APPROVAL PAGE

This thesis entitled DEVELOPMENT OF COST ESTIMATION OF EQUATIONS FOR FORGING

by John C. Rankin JOHN C. RANKIN

has been approved for the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Russ College of Engineering and Technology by

Bhavin Mehta Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Dennis Irwin Dean, Russ College of Engineering and Technology

ABSTRACT

RANKIN, JOHN C., M.S. November 2005. Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OFEstimation Equations for Forging (115FOR FORGING (115 pp.) Development of Cost COST ESTIMATION EQUATIONS pp.) Director of Thesis: Bhavin Mehta

Following are the processes and results of the development of a more accurate forging cost estimating equation useful for any forged part of given material and final dimensions. A current forging cost estimating equation standard is used as a benchmark. Error from this equation is calculated at 23 percent. Prototype equations are developed using current methods of metal processing. Models are then tweaked or discarded as testing progresses through varied methods of error trapping. The final equation (below) has an error of 15 percent, a reduction of eight percent over the benchmark. process cost = K ( APave ) EFcom

n

Where K and n are constants, A is the cross-sectional area of the forging, Pave is the average pressure needed to produce the forging using the “slab” method of calculation, E is an escalation factor ($102.57 in this study), and Fcom is a forging shape complexity multiplier.

Approved: Bhavin Mehta Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL PAGE........................................................................................................ ii ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................. iii LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................... vii LIST OF TABLES .........................................................................................................ix HISTORY .....................................................................................................................10 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................10 COST ESTIMATION ......................................................................................................11 BENCHMARK FORGING EQUATION ..............................................................................11 Forging Process Cost ............................................................................................13 Material Cost.........................................................................................................14 Machining Cost......................................................................................................15 RESEARCH..................................................................................................................17 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................17 FORGING COST EQUATION ..........................................................................................17 Volume Estimation.................................................................................................17 Benchmark Attribute Analysis ...........................................................................18 “Stick” Analysis.................................................................................................20 Forging...