Development of Child and Young Person from Birth to 19 Years of Age.

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Development of child and young person from birth to 19 years of age.

0-3 months
Physical
ŸHead circumference increases approximately 2cm per month, then will increases 1.5 cm per month until four months. ŸIncreases are important as they indicate brain growth.
ŸSkin remains sensitive and easily irritated.
ŸCries with tears.
ŸEyes begin moving together in unison.
ŸGums are red.
Motor development
ŸSwallowing reflex and tongue movements are immature, inability to move to the back of the mouth. ŸGrasp reflex.
ŸMovements are large and jerky.
ŸRaises head and upper arms when laid on the front.
ŸTurns head side to side when laid on the back.
ŸUpper body parts are more active

3-6 Months
Physical
ŸTeeth may begin to appear.
ŸLegs may appear to be bowed.
ŸBaby fat will appear on upper legs arms and neck.
ŸTrue aye colour will develop.
Motor development
ŸBlinking and sucking action are well developed.
ŸPicks ups objects using pincer grasp.
ŸReaches for abject using both hands and learns to pass objects back and two between hands. ŸAble to hold own bottle to drink.
ŸCan pull self into crawling position and rock.
ŸCannot understand no or danger
ŸPlays peekaboo.

6-9 Months
Physical
ŸMore teeth will start to appear.
ŸArms and hands are more developed than feet and legs (cephalocaudal development) hands appear large in proportion to other body parts. ŸLegs may continue to appear bowed.
ŸBaby fat will still appear on the legs and arms.
ŸBoth eyes should appear to work in unison.
ŸShould be able to see distant objects.
Motor development
ŸReaches with one hand leading to grasp an offered object or toy and can manipulate on object transferring from one hand to another. ŸBeginning to pull self into standing position on furniture, has good balance at sitting and will shuffle them self around, creeps on hands and crawls up and down stairs, may be able to walk with adult support. ŸResponds to hearing tests..

ŸRecognizes objects in reverse order.

12-24 Months
Physical
ŸWeight is now around 3 times the Childs birth weight.
ŸRate of growth slows down.
ŸLegs may still appear bowed
ŸToddler will start to loose baby fat as they will be moving around. ŸBaby shape changes and will take on a adult like appearance. Motor development.
ŸCrawls skilfully and carefully.
ŸStands alone and with feet apart, legs stiffened and arms out for support. ŸMost children will walk alone or unassisted at this stage. ŸEnjoys pushing and pulling toys while walking.
ŸCarries toys from place to place.
ŸEnjoys crayons and making scribbles.
ŸChild will like to help feed them self and playing with spoons. ŸHelps turn pages in a book.
ŸStacks two to six objects a day.
Cognitive development
ŸEnjoys object holding activities.
ŸPuts toys in mouth less often.
ŸEnjoys looking at picture books.
ŸShows and offers toys to others.
ŸNames many everyday objects.
ŸTries to put mechanical objects together after watching someone else do it. ŸMost children with autism are diagnosed at this time.
Language
ŸProduces considerable jargon, puts word together into speech like patterns. ŸFollows simple instructions.
ŸWhen asked will point to familiar persons or toys.
ŸResponds to simple questions like yes and no.
ŸSpeech is 25 to 50 percent intelligible during this period. ŸAcquires and uses five to fifty words, typically these words refer to animals and toys. ŸStarts to point and pull things like hair.

ŸEnjoys listening to rhymes and songs and tries to sing along as well. ŸTries to copy sounds.
Social
ŸThe child becomes less wary of new people and is less reluctant to leave parents. ŸWill start to help at tidy up time, putting own toys away. ŸEnjoys being held and sitting on parents knee to read books. ŸEnjoys the company of other children.

ŸThe child will start to assert their authority in situations such as being less co-operative when asked to follow...
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