Development Norms of Children and Young People from Birth to 19 Years

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Development Norms of Children and Young People from Birth to 19 Years Age| Physical development|
Birth to 6months| * Develops own feeding and sleeping patterns * Grows rapidly * Gains early control of eye movement * Develops motor controls in orderly sequence, balances head, rolls over, pulls self to sitting position, and sits unaided| 6months to 1 year| * From 8 months begins to crawl * From 9 months begin to walk * Puts everything in their mouth * Begins teething| 1 to 2 years| * Begins to walk, climb on furniture * Enjoys to push and pull things * Begins to feed themselves with a spoon and can hold a cup * Begins to take off simple clothing, ie socks coat * Likes to put things in and take things out of cupboards, boxes etc.| 2 to 3 years| * Runs, kicks, climbs, throws a ball, and jumps * Eats easily with a spoon * Helps to dress self * Is more able to manipulate small objects with hands, likes to scribble| 3 to 4 years| * Begins to climb ladders, can start to ride a tricycle * Is very active * Like to play with different textures, mud, sand, water * Can begin to put together simple puzzles * Can feed self with a spoon or fork * Takes care of own toilet needs independently during the day, may still need help at night| 4 to 5 years| * Is very active, can be physically aggressive * Muscles are developing rapidly| 5 to 6 years| * Increased appetite * Can dress and undress them self| 6 to 7 years| * Is full of energy and generally restless, tapping feet etc. * Has growth spurts * May become more fussy with food * Has awareness of different genders and is inquisitive * Commonly catches more bugs, colds etc due to close contact with others at school| 7 to 8 years| * Has well established hand-eye co-ordination and is more interested in drawing and painting * May develop nervous habits, such as nail biting * Has fewer illnesses but colds etc may last longer * Can be more accident prone as they explore and test abilities * May be more likely to sulk | 8 to 9 years| * General health improves as immune system is more developed * Good appetite, may be more willing to try new foods * May urinate them self due to anxiety * Very busy and active (on the go all the time)| 9 to 10 years| * Enjoys more complicated crafts * Interested in team games * Girls generally begin to develop faster than boys| 10 to 11 years| * Girls may have increased weight gain * Boys very active and rough in play| 11 to 12 years| * Become increasingly aware of their body and changes * Boys are ahead of girls in endurance and muscular development, may have increased appetite * May begin to show sign of self-consciousness when learning new skills| 12 to 15 years| * More concerned with appearance * May develop acne * Girls are gradually reaching physical and sexual maturity. Boys are beginning to mature physically and sexually * Sudden and rapid increases in height, weight, and strength | 16 to 19 years| * Likely to act upon sexual desires * Has completed physical maturation|

Age| Communication and Intellectual development|
Birth to 6months| * Learns through senses * Vocalizes spontaneously | 6months to 1 year| * Likes to repeat the same behaviour * Likes to hear things being named, mummy, daddy, dog, car * May not speak until 1 year or later| 1 to 2 years| * Likes to explore, poke fingers in holes etc. * Can understand simple instructions * Can point to common objects, body parts * Enjoys simple songs and nursery rhymes * Uses one word sentences, bye, down, go,no| 2 to 3 years| * Begins to sing simple songs * Uses 3-4 word sentences * Has a short attention span| 3 to 4 years| * Uses imagination, likes to play in role play * Is curious and inquisitive | 4 to 5 years| * Has a large vocabulary * May have imaginary friends *...
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