Development from Birth to 19

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Task 1a)

Physical:-
0-3 Physical development from birth is usually very quick, within the first few weeks of being born a baby will smile and start responding to sounds and environments. Gradually their muscles start to develop and by 6 months they will start reaching for and holding objects. Around the time a baby reaches one year they are beginning to crawl, and can roll from front to back. Using furniture to aid themselves in standing or using adult support to start taking some first steps. They are now able to sit unaided. Hand eye coordination starts improving as they pass objects between both hands. Teeth may start to show and more solid food will be introduced to them. As they move towards the age of two a child will begin walking and using toys to push and pull while they are walking. Picking objects up in different ways, building small towers and starting to show a preference for one hand. Pointing at their choices and waving and using their head to tell you yes or no. Between two and three they will start making marks on paper and developing their fine motor skills. Gross motor skills will develop, kicking balls and throwing them.

3-7 From three years gross motor skills will start advancing, such as jumping and running, stairs will become easier. They will gain more independence. Fine motor skills will be easier and they can start to dress and undress themselves with a small amount of assistance. By the time a child gets to four girls and boys become slightly different. Boy’s gross motor skills will be developed further when it comes to throwing, catching, climbing pedalling etc, however for girls their fine motor skills will be more developed with use of scissors, pens/pencils and threading beads. When children reach the age of five they will have more control with pencils, copying letters and shapes. Gross motor skills will keep on developing and they are able to kick with an aim, learning to hop on one leg and then the other. By six children will start taking risks with jumping from heights and will start riding bikes better as their confidence increases. They learn to do buttons while dressing themselves and begin to learn laces.

7-12 At seven years old children can walk along a thin line with arms out to the side for balance. They will start riding a bike two-wheeled or possibly roller skates. Stamina will have increased showing in some activities such as swimming and gymnastics. They start to assess their environment when running avoiding objects that are in their way. Catching becomes better, and may even use only one hand when doing so. They are more competent with their writing skills, incorporating colours with their drawings, such as green at the bottom of the page for grass. Children aged eight and nine have a quicker reaction time and their body strength will have increased. They enjoy participating in sports and energetic games. They can control over small muscles and can draw and write with more skill and dexterity and start joining letters in their handwriting. At ten and eleven years girls and boys begin to differ again, girls experience puberty earlier than boys, generally girls are two years ahead of boys. Body proportions become more like those of adults. Writing has become established and they will now have a writing style, usually with joined up letters. 12-19 Physical becomes very different in each child from the age of twelve upwards as they are now in adolescence. Boys and girls have a big difference. Boys will become bigger than girls, body shape will change, muscles will develop and body hair will grow. Strength and coordination will increase. Other changes that happen within puberty will start such as their voices getting deeper, testicles and scrotum will begin to grow. With Girls body shape will change and start to round and become curvy. Their breasts will start to develop, menstruation will start however this can range from eight years until late teens, and the average...
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