Development 0-16 Year Old

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Describe the expected patterns of development from 0-16 years and the factors affecting development. (P1 & P2) Age| Social & Emotional| Physical| Language| Cognitive| 0-6 months| The child will begin to recognise their carers face and voice.They will start to develop their self-image.The child will smile at 6 weeks.They will be friendly with strangers but will start to show shyness and anxiety when carer is out of sight.| Newborn babies are born with rooting, sucking, hand grasp, startle and steeping reflex.At 3 months a child can hold head upright for a few seconds. They will begin to clasp and unclasp their hands together in finger play.At 5 months the movement of their hands are uncontrolled. At 6 months a child can roll over and can lift leg to 90° to grasp the foot. They can also use their whole hand to grasp an object which is held in the palm of their hand.| The child will cry to communicate their need for attention.They will begin ‘cooing’.They will vocalise when they are on their own and can respond vocally to their carer’s interaction.At 4-6 months the child can practice sounds by using their tongue and lips to change the tone. They will also begin to respond to the direction of the tone.At 6 months they will begin ‘babbling’ and use gestures as a form of communication.| The child will be capable of imitating facial expressions.They will begin to be able to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar faces.They are capable of demonstrating certain types of memory.Their language development will begin.A child will recognise that an object remains the same size and shape even if they are distant.The child will begin to explore the world around them. | Age| Social & Emotional| Physical| Language| Cognitive| 6-18 months| Babies will develop their understanding that they exist separately from others. The child will become interested in mirror images.They will begin to show the emotion of fear. The child will develop strong preferences for people and toys.They will become increasingly shy or anxious with strangers and they will prefer their primary caregiver above others. | At 9 months the child can lean forward to pick up a toy, can sit alone for 10-15 minutes and move around the floor by rolling.At 12 months they may be able to stand upright for a few minutes and pull themselves up.They will learn hand-eye coordination to pick up small objects and use an early pincer grasp.At 12 months the child will use both hands freely but they may show a preference for one.At 15 months the child will be able to release an object from their grip skilfully. They will grasp a crayon with their whole hand with a palmar grasp.At 18 months a child will hold a pencil with the tripod grasp and will spontaneously scribble to and fro. They will also turn the pages in a book.| Children will be capable of responding to their own name and will attempt to respond to sounds by making sounds.They are capable of responding to ‘no’.Their babbling will to include short strings of consonants, e.g. dah, dah.They will begin to understand that words refer to physical objects.They will use gestures as a form of communication.| They will begin to acquire the notion of object permanence.They will attempt to use objects correctly, e.g. their feeding cup. They will explore objects in a number of different ways; throwing, shaking and dropping.They will begin to recognise their own facial features.They will begin to recognise the difference between self and other people.| Age| Social & Emotional| Physical| Language| Cognitive| 18-24 months| The child will begin to show increasing independence from their caregiver. They start to show feelings of envy and embarrassment. The idea of separation anxiety will fade away.The child will imitate the behaviours of others, especially adults and older children.They will display the idea of empathy. | May show hand preference but may not fully decide for a...
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