Developing Ecotourism

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Developing Ecotourism:
The Prospect of Bakkhali

Group Project prepared under
Rajiv Gandhi Chair

Preface
This project has been prepared under the aegis of Rajiv Gandhi Chair in Eco -systems & Sustainable Development under the supervision of Professor Sarmila Banerjee by the Masters level students in Economics with specialization in Resource & Environmental Economics of the University of Calcutta.

Prof. Banerjee has initiated us to the issues related to economy-environment interface and convinced us about the importance of the notion of ecotourism to help the entire process keep going. We are extremely grateful to Professor Banerjee for her active interest and caring support all throughout.

In this backdrop we tried to collate information on different aspects of Ecotourism from our field trip to Bakkhali, a small part of the Sundarban mangrove forest ecosystem of West Bengal. We enjoyed our venture in this newly travelled terrain of environmental economics and learnt to search for information from the internet, write brief descriptions of the issues, prepare presentation slides and fina lly to give an integrated shape to the entire project. Finally, it has been the collective contribution of all the students of this course of the batch 2010-2012.

Semester IV
Resource and Environmental Economics
M.Sc. (Economics)
University of Calcutta
June 8, 2012

ii

Table of Contents
No.

Contents
Preface
Table of Contents
Ecotourism
1.1
Different forms of Tourism in India
1.2
Future prospects of Tourism
1.3
Impacts of tourism
1.4
Promoting ecotourism in India
1.5
The principles adopted by those involved in Ecotourism
1.6
Why ecotourism?

Page No.
ii
iii - iv
1-8

2.

Ecosystem Approach
2.1
Ecosystem and its Importance
2.2
Ecosystem Approach
2.3
Implementation of Ecosystem Approach

9 - 11

3.

Valuing Biodiversity
3.1
Why value Ecosystem?
3.2
Motivation for an economic evaluation of ecosystem services
3.3
Biodiversity
3.4
Valuation of Biodiversity
3.5
Biodiversity Mapping

12 - 15

4.

People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR)
4.1
Objective of PBR formation
4.2
Usefulness of PBR
4.3
Information recorded in PBR
4.4
Major ways of collecting data for PBR
4.5
Interconnectedness in an Ecosystem

16 - 18

5.

Sundarban – A Special Ecosystem
5.1
Sundarban Eco – region: Introduction
5.2
Sundarban Freshwater Swamp Forests
5.3
Sundarban Mangroves
5.4
Sand – Dunes: Ecological Set - up
5.5
Biodiversity of Sundarban
5.6
Livelihood in Sundarban
5.7
Utilization of Mangrove Resources Comprised
5.8
Recent Developments & their Impacts
5.9
Man-Animal Conflict
5.10
Threats to Sundarban & Climatic Vulnerability

19 - 33

1.

iii

6.

Ecotourism in Bakkhali: A Fringe Part of Sundarban
6.1
Bakkhali
6.2
Accessibility
6.3
Uniqueness
6.4
Frasergunj, Henry Island & Jwambudwip
6.5
Floral Diversity at Bakkhali & Henry Isand
6.6
Faunal Diversity at Bakkhali & Henry Island
6.7
Avian Diversity at Bakkhali & Henry Island
6.8
Livelihood on Biodiversity
6.9
Market Sharing
6.10
Other Observations
6.11
Threats from Tourism
6.12

Our Suggestions

iv

34 - 45

I. ECOTOURISM

diversification to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Tourism has become a thriving global indu stry with the power to shape developing countries in both positive and negative ways. Consequently, it is the fourth largest industry in the global economy and in India it contributes to a large proportion of the National Income - 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% of the total employment; thus generating huge employment opportunities (Wikipedia).

1.1

Different forms of Tourism in India

The Indian government, in order to boost tourism of various kinds in India, has set up the Ministry of Tourism and Culture. T his ministry recently launched a campaign called ‘I

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