Determination of Energy Balance

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Determination of Energy Balancing In a fuel cell power vehicle: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49625260/39/Fuel-Cell-Energy-Balances Fuel Cell
* What is fuel cell
* Why we need fuel cell
* History of fuell cells
* Mathematical methods
* Classification of fuel cells
* Parts of a fuel cell
* Fuel Cell Setup
* Modeling of fuel cell
* Fuel cell system design
* Advantages and disadvantages of fuel cell
* Future scope of fuel cell
Energy Balance in Fuel Cells
Means of Transportation
Classification of Transportation
Different Sources of Power to Means of Transportation
Envoirment Factors in Different Sources of Powers
Fuel Cell as a sour of Power
Benefits n Disadvantages of Fuel Cell as a Source of Power
Working Principle of Fuel Cell Powered Vehicle
Energy Balance in vehicle
Comparison Of Engergy Balance With Different Sources of Powers of Vehicle Energy Balance OF Fuel Cell Powered Vehicle

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INSPIRATION:

Energy and its transformation are essential to our lives and our well-being from an individual level to a nation level. In every human activity from breathing to transportation, energy is consumed or rather converted from one form to another as per the utility. Economic wellbeing of the nation is also correlated with the per capita energy consumption. Over 85% of our planet current energy needs are met through the consumption of fossil fuels. These fossil fuels are primarily consumed through combustion process, which is responsible for obnoxious emissions; these emissions are undoubtedly detrimental for our environment. In reference [57] the depletion times for oil, coal and gas is estimated 35, 107, and 37 years respectively. The concerns about the environmental pollution and fossil fuel depletion demands new solutions for alternate energy sources. Fuel cell technology is one of the promising candidates for future energy conversion processes in wide application areas like portable power, transportation, and stationary power etc. There are several types and classifications of fuel cells depending upon the type of electrolyte, fuel and operating temperature. This report will focus on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell only. A PEM fuel cell is by no doubt the most focused of the fuel cell type studied in last two decades by researchers all over the world.

During recent year research on renewable energy resource is increasing because of increasing global warming due to fossil fuels. Renewable resources include: 1. Hydrogen fuel.
2. Solar energy.
3. Electrical energy.
4. Wind energy.
5. Tidal energy
6. Geothermal energy.

However for Automotive application first three are more feasible. On the basis of efficiency and future prospects hydrogen energy provides more promising future as for fuel cells the efficiency can range 30% to 50% depending upon power density or load [1-2]. The US department of energy goal for 2011 for fuel cell lifetime performance is 5000 hours for automotive application and 40,000 hours for stationary application [1-3]

Pakistan is currently facing a serious challenge of energy crisis in terms of demand and supply. Primary energy supplies are not enough even to meet the present energy demand of Pakistan [1-4]

Renewable energy resources can play a role in bridging this gap of energy demand and supply. Fuel cell technology which uses hydrogen as a fuel, generated from these renewable energy resources can be a choice especially in transportation sector.

To lead Pakistan into the technology of future automotive industry, we have designed and fabricated Pakistan’s second fuel cell prototype vehicle named “GREEN-ACE” in order to study about fuel cell stack and its working as a road vehicle. The Vehicle was also launched in the international event of Shell Eco-marathon held at Sepang, Malaysia in July, 2012.

An earlier attempt of making fuel cell vehicle in Pakistan by AEDB (Alternative Energy Development Board)...
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