Determination of Blood Group Using an Eldon Card

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Anatomy & Physiology

Determine Blood Group Using Eldon Card
The Experiment

Zlata Jasevits
Nursing Studies ‘A’

2nd February 2009

Blood Structure3
Blood Group Systems4
ABO system:4
Rhesus System:5
Blood Transfusion6
ABO Alleles and Genetic Inheritance Patterns6
The Experiment7
Materials used:7
Observations and Results:8

Determine Blood Group using Eldon Card
In this assignment I am going to identify the blood’s structure, make enquiries about blood transfusion, the classifications of blood groups and its compatibility. I also review ABO alleles and genetic inheritance patterns. My main objective is to determine the blood group using the Eldon Card and analyze the experiment. ‘An average adult has between 10 and 12 pints of blood. 7% of a person's body weight is made up of blood. Human blood travels 60,000 miles per day on its journey through the arteries, arterioles and capillaries and back through the venules and veins Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. Blood carries carbon dioxide and other waste products back to the lungs, kidneys and liver for disposal. There are about 1 billion red cells in two to three drops of blood’ []

Blood Structure
Blood is a fluid connective tissue which contains 55% of plasma and 45% of blood cells. Plasma is straw-coloured slightly thick liquid made up mostly of water (90%-92%) and proteins (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and prothrombin). It transports mineral salts, nutrients, waste, hormones, enzymes, gases and antibodies. Blood cells brake up into three types: erythrocytes (red blood cells), leucocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (platelets).

[Tucker, L.]
Blood Group Systems
The transfer of blood from one person to another began to be practiced during the 17th century; however, it involved serious risks and sometimes meant death to patients. In 1902, an Austrian Physician named Karl Landsteiner began studying why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions. Landsteiner discovered that there are four different blood types: O, A, B, AB. There are eight blood groups and they are classified using two systems. * ABO system

* Rhesus System
ABO system:
The first system called the ABO system has four main groups: * Group
* A Group
* B Group
* AB Group
Antigens are found on the red blood cells. Group A has the A antigen and if it is exposed to B antigen, it will recognize it as foreign and can therefore produce anti-B antibodies. Likewise, group B has the B antigen and if it is exposed to A antigen, it will recognize it as foreign and can therefore produce anti-A antibodies. “A” blood must never be given to a group “B” person and vice versa. Group AB has both the A antigen and the B antigen, so this group makes no antibodies and individuals with this blood group can receive blood from any other groups. Group O has neither A nor B antigen.  Therefore, it will not be rejected when it is given to any other group.  As a result, group O donors are known as ‘universal donors’, but they can receive only group O blood themselves, as group O produces both anti-A and anti-B antibodies if exposed to these antigens. []

Rhesus System:
Second important blood group system in transfusion is the Rhesus System and is classified as Rhesus Positive (+) and Rhesus Negative (-). Rhesus depends on D antigen presence in the blood. In Ireland, 63% of people have the D antigen on their red blood cells and are rhesus positive. The remaining 37% don’t have the D antigen and are rhesus negative. The blood group is defined by the ABO group together with the rhesus...
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