Determinants of Counterproductive Work Behavior in Pakistan Aviation Industry

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This research focuses on exploring various key determinants of counterproductive work behavior of employees in aviation industry in Pakistan. The data was collected from three most prominent airline service providers in Pakistan (Pakistan Airlines, Aeroasia & Air blue). The relationship of three independent variables with counterproductive work behavior was explored by distributing questionnaires to the employees of our sample. Questionnaire includes a total of fifty items. Independent variables include external locus of control, perceived organizational procedural and distributive injustice. Results indicate a strong positive correlation between CWB and External locus of control(r=0.694). But relationship between CWB and Procedural Injustice was not as strong as was expected(r=0.38). Distributive injustice shows very weak positive correlation with CWB(r=0.078).


The world has changed into a global village where Organizations have generally focused their theory and research on various categories of positive employee behavior, such as employee motivation and performance, organizational citizenship behavior, pro-social organizational behavior, and unplanned performance. Whereas various forms of negative employee behavior/counterproductive work behavior (CWB) exist in organizations, they have received less theoretical and experimental attention. As organizations are more concerned about efficiency and hence, any deviance, either minor or major, from desired situation is considered to be a serious problem. Employees are the most important resource among all other available resources. Their commitment can lead the organization towards success. Contrary to this, their negative attitude towards work (Counterproductive Work Behavior) may force the organization to face troubles. CWB means any deliberate act of employees that are against the organization’s legitimate interests (Sackett, 2002). The word ‘legitimate’ in this definition of CWB clearly explains that if an employee violates any rule of organization which is illegal or immoral, it will not be termed as CWB. CWB includes wide range of activities that vary in severity (Kelloway, loughlin, Barling & Nault, 2002). Moreover there are several researches on the relationship between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behaviors. One of the study concludes that there is significant negative correlation between CWB and OCB (r=-0.20) and self reported CWBs and OCBs have separate nature, determinants and outcomes (Kelloway 2002). If CWB and OCB are treated as two opposite ends of a single continuum, it means that either a person acts in a positive or in the negative way but that’s not the fact. A person may indulge in both kinds of activities at the same time (Sackett, 2002).

CWB is basically a facet of job performance which comes under the head Non-Task Performance. CWB is categorized as individual versus organization oriented CWB (Gruys & Sackett, 2003). All those employees who are socially involved in different age graded social roles, they are not likely to indulge in CWB and those whose personalities are a victim of non-normative changes; they exhibit more CWB (Roberts, Walton, Bogg & Aspi, 2006). CWB has positive relationship with negative emotionality and negative relationship with constraints (Roberts 2006). Environmental conditions are positively correlated with negative emotions and negatively correlated with positive emotions. Trait anger is positively correlated with negative emotions and negatively correlated with positive emotions (Miles, Borman, Spector & Fox, 2002). What individuals perceive and think about various events occurring at their workplace definitely have a...
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