Detecting Abnormalities in ECG Test

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Detecting ECG Daniela Paszkiewicz and Lyndsey Wessel Abnormalities in VO2 Max Tests

“An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a medical test that detects cardiac (heart) abnormalities by measuring the electrical activity generated by the heart as it contracts.” 698/2/istockphoto_3733698-electrocardiogram-ecg-ekgwith-human-heart-on-screen.jpg

Function of Electrocardiograph
Electrocardiograph measures a patients ECG ECG can help detect a variety of health conditions ECG frequency is calculated using a Fourier series as it is a periodic waveform Measures heart muscle activity by monitoring

ECG Explanation
P wave represents atrial depolarisation QRS complex represents ventricular depolarisation T wave represents the rapid repolarisation of the ventricles. /Oxford_Sports/ g

Frequency = 1.17Hz

ECG Trace of Normal, Healthy Heart

ECG Trace of Irregular, Unhealthy Heart

Application of Electrocardiograph
Electrodes are attached to a persons chest, arms and legs using suction cups or sticky gel. The electrodes detect the electrical currents generated by the heart. After all procedures, electrodes are removed and results are analyzed immediately.

VO2 Max
“the highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal or exhaustive exercise”

Function of VO2 Max Test
Considered best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and aerobic fitness VO2 max is expressed relative to body weight VO2 Max tests measure; Max O2 uptake, aerobic power and aerobic s/treadmill.jpg

Equipment Required:

Application of VO2 Max Test
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide analysers


Douglas Bag or Tissot Tank

Pneumotach or Turbine Ventilator


Application of VO2 Max Test
Exercise is performed on appropriate ergometer ( treadmill, cycle, swim bench) Exercise workloads are selected to gradually progress in



Application of VO2 Max Test
Scoring of VO2 Max Tests:

Results are shown in either L/min (liters per minute) or ml/kg/min (mls of O2 per kilogram of body weight per minute) VO2 max is reached when the following occur; Plateau of O2 uptake Max HR is reached Respiratory exchange ratio of 1:15 or greater Volitional Exhaustion

Relevance of ECG and VO2 Max Test

ECG testing determines whether heart problems or abnormalities exist, and this can then aid in writing specialised training programs. Knowing whether heart abnormalities or problems exist also allows sports scientists and exercise scientists to be aware of limitations of athletes or patients.

VO2 Max Test

VO2 max scores can be used to give an indication of CV endurance and aerobic capacity, and can be used by Sports Scientists when working with elite

ECG and VO2 Max Tests
Exercise testing:
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elicits body’s reaction to acute exercise. Changes in HR, BP and Respiration rate can help provide a quantitative estimation of cardiovascular conditioning and function.

Heart abnormalities not present at rest, can be detected during exercise.

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Normal ECG Responses During Exercise
Shortens Sloped downwards

– – –

Normal ECG Responses During Exercise
Greater in depth Greater deflection at max exercise Returns to resting values gradually during recovery

Normal ECG Responses During ST-Segment: Exercise Shifts right – –

Shifts up

Normal ECG Responses During T-Wave: Exercise Amplitude decreases at first – – –

Amplitude increases at max exercise At 1min into recovery, amplitude is equal to resting values

Normal ECG...
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