Details About Magnesium (Mg)

Topics: Magnesium, Abundance of the chemical elements, Magnesium compounds Pages: 4 (1200 words) Published: February 17, 2013
Name: Magnesium
Name derived from: Magnesia deriving from the tribe name Magnetes Group No.: 2
Period No.: 3
Electron Configuration: [Ne] 3s2
Symbol: Mg
Atomic Mass: 24.305
Group Name: Alkaline earth metal
Block: S
Description: Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Its common oxidation number is +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole. Magnesium is the fourth most common element in the Earth as a whole (behind iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. The relative abundance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei). Due to magnesium ion's high solubility in water, it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater. Standard State: Solid

Forms: Magnesium Amino Acid Chelate, Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Lactate, Magnesium Sulfate, Magnesium Carbonate, amd Magnesium Glycinate, Malate & Taurates Color: Silvery-white

Classification: Metallic
Discoverer: Joseph Black
When discovered: 1755
Occurrence: Although magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, only dolomite, magnesite, brucite, carnallite, talc, and olivine are of commercial importance. The Mg2+ cation is the second most abundant cation in seawater (occurring at about 12% of the mass of sodium there), which makes seawater and sea-salt an attractive commercial source of Mg. To extract the magnesium, calcium hydroxide is added to seawater to form hydroxide precipitate. MgCl2 + Ca (OH) 2 → Mg (OH)2 + CaCl2

Magnesium hydroxide (brucite) is insoluble in water so it can be filtered out, and reacted with hydrochloric to obtain concentrated magnesium chloride. Mg (OH) 2 + 2 HCl → MgCl2 + 2 H2O
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