Desinger Genes

Topics: DNA, Gene, Molecular biology Pages: 15 (3270 words) Published: May 16, 2013
by Karen L. Lancour

DISCLAIMER - This presentation was prepared using draft rules.  There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules.  The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules. • BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2013 EVENT RULES for EVENT PARAMETERS and TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

• Training Power Point presents an overview of material in the training handout • Training Handout presents introductory topic content information for the event • Sample Tournament has sample problems with key

• Event Supervisor Guide has event preparation tips, setup needs and scoring tips • Internet Resource & Training Materials are available on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Information. • A Biology-Earth Science CD as well as the Division B and Division C Test Packets are available from SO store at

Students will solve problems using their knowledge of Molecular Genetics, Biotechnology, and Population Genetics. This event may be run as stations but it need not be. It is a very different event when run as paper pencil. The best competition is still as stations using process skills and problem solving.

Every attempt should be made to avoid over-emphasis on a particular area.

1. At the various levels, areas to be tested include: |Regional & State |Regional & State |National (all topics) | |DNA structure & function |Lac & Trp Operons |Restriction mapping | |DNA Semi-conservative Replication |DNA Fingerprinting/RFLP |Mitochondrial DNA | |Gene expression (transcription and translation |DNA Sequencing |DNA Repair | |Control and detection of gene expression |Plasmid selection and isolation |Post- transcriptional modification | |Mutations |PCR |Trinucleotide repeats | |DNA Sequencing |Gene Therapy |Epigenetics |

Note: Regions or States may decide to cover all of the topics so check with your local tournament director for specifics.

2. Process skills may include observations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations.

Note: It is a good idea to review the General Genetics Prinicples that are in the Heredity Event
in Division B – they are very relavent to Designer Genes covers.


Central dogma of molecular genetics is DNA -( RNA -( Protein. Exception is in retroviruses
where genetic storage vehicle is RNA. It then makes a DNA which replicates to form double stranded
DNA and continues through dogma. Exceptions among viruses – RNA to DNA (retroviruses)

DNA Structure
DNA structure – double helix with sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate and nitrogen bases (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine) Pairing – A with T and G with C

Nucleotide - basic unit of sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base - 4 kinds of nucleotides because of the 4 types of bases

DNA Replication

DNA replication is semi-conservative and occurs in the nucleus.

Events that occur:
• DNA polymerase is the key enzyme
• DNA uncoils and splits
• template strand is read 3’ to 5’
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