Breakwaters are an integral part of a port and harbours. In comparison with other breakwaters such as vertical wall type and composite types, rubble mound breakwaters are conventionally used in the places where abundant natural stones are available. In this paper, the design aspects of rubble mound breakwaters is detailed. The main criterion in the design is the stability of armour blocks for the design wave climate. The importance of various characteristic layers of a typical rubble mound breakwater is discussed.
A harbour is a protected zone where the ocean going vessels are safely berthed. To create such highly tranquil area, the waters have to be either naturally protected or artificially protected from the severe environmental forcing such as wind-waves and storms. Due to the increase in the demand for safe berthing places both for commercial and fishing activities, there is a need to construct harbours at many locations with artificial protected environment. Such protection is highly rendered by breakwaters. There are many types of breakwaters which can provide proper functionality. In our environment, rubble mound sections provide a viable option for the breakwater construction.
The layout of breakwaters depends on the actual needs, benefits expected from the methodology, effect on adjacent shorelines and more importantly economy. In this lecture, rubble mound breakwater as an effective harbour creator element is considered. The design on the layout of breakwaters with particular reference to our Indian coasts is presented in this workshop. The design of cross-sectional details of breakwaters has been presented. Although the proper design of breakwaters would not guarantee the functional achievements of the breakwater, it requires great attention. This is because many of the breakwaters have failed due to the defective design in this respect.
STRUCTURE OF BREAKWATERS