Introduction to conveyor system
* A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. * Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. * Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular in the material handling and packaging industries. Types of conveyor systems
1. Gravity roller conveyor
2. Gravity skatewheel conveyor
3. Belt conveyor
4. Wire mesh conveyors
5. Plastic belt conveyors
6. Bucket conveyors
7. Flexible conveyors
8. Vertical conveyors
9. Spiral conveyors
10. Vibrating conveyors
11. Pneumatic conveyors
12. Belt driven live roller conveyors
13. Lineshaft roller conveyor
14. Chain conveyor
15. Screw conveyor
16. Chain driven live roller conveyor
17. Overhead conveyors
18. Dust proof conveyors
19. Pharmaceutical conveyors
20. Automotive conveyors
1. Belt conveyor
2. Chain conveyor (Automotive conveyors)
3. Lineshaft roller conveyor
4. Screw conveyor
5. Bucket conveyors
6. Spiral conveyors(Vertical conveyors)
* A conveyor belt (or belt conveyor) consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of material - the conveyor belt - that rotates about them. * One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. * The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler. * There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; 1. General material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory. 2. Bulk material handling such as grain, coal, ores, etc. generally in outdoor locations. * In addition there are a number of commercial applications of belt onveyors such as those in grocery stores, airports etc. 1. Horizontal Conveyor
* Discharges at intermediate points through fixed trippers or at end
* Will carry up varying slopes which depend upon the nature of material is loaded in usual way and discharges over head pulley. * Inclined or retarding conveyor for lowering
* Material gently down slopes
DESIGN OF CONVEYOR BELT
Components of conveyor belt
1. Size of material.
1. Maximum lump size of material is considered.
2. Material and width of belt is considered depending on the material. 2. Selection of belt speed
3. Factors : lump size factor, abrasiveness factor, air borne factor. 3. Safe angle of Inclination/Declination & angle of surcharge of material. 4. Type of supporting idlers and their spacing
5. Calculations of tensions in belt for various conditions.
6. Selection of belt with breaking strength
= (maximum operating tension X minimum factor of safety). 7. Drive power with transmission losses and sources of power. 8. Determining various pulley sizes.
9. Selection if proper bearings for duty conditions.
10. Location of take up and take down tensions.
11. Location of hold back/brake with braking force and torque. BELT
* Selection of belt should be made depending on the properties of materials. * Various type of material properties are shown below
a) Oily .or liable to react with rubber products,
b) High temperature,
d) Mildly abrasive,
f) Very abrasive,
g) Sharp abrasive,
h) Easily degradable,
j) Mildly corrosive,
k) Highly corrosive,
m) Explosive or creating harmful dust,
n) Very dusty,
q) Hydroscopic, and
* PULLEYS: Based on percentage tensile force (ratio between the working tensile force and maximum allowable tensile force of the selected belt), diameters of pulleys shall be selected. * The...