Design Lab

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Rate of reaction Design Lab
Background:
Reaction rate is most commonly defined as the speed at which a reaction takes place. This rate can be altered by many factors such as temperature, pressure, concentration, volume, or the use of a catalyst. In order for a reaction to occur, the atoms must collide in the correct orientation to break the bonds and must also have more energy than the needed activation energy. If their energy is not high enough, the reaction will not be able to take place. By altering the conditions of a reaction, we can manipulate the number of molecules at the correct energy and speed at which those molecules are moving, increasing the chances of correct collision orientation.

This is an example of a graph that demonstrates the rate of a reaction before it reaches equilibrium. When shifting only the rate of a reaction, the same amount will always be produced, so the line will begin to level out at the same number (in this case, volume of CO2 would remain the same). The only thing that will change is the slope of the line throughout the reaction process. When the line is steeper, the reaction is moving quickly, when the line is more even the rate is slower.

Increasing the concentration of one of the reactants increases the chance of the reactants colliding in the correct orientation, therefore speeding the process of the reaction. This lab will investigate these affects on the rate of a specific reaction.

Aim: How does the concentration of HCl affect the rate of the following reaction? CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Variables:
Independent variable: Concentration of HCl

Dependent variable: Amount of CO2 produced

Controlled Variables:
Temperature of the room, and the HCl
No stirring or shaking of the experiment at any times
The same type test tube should be used in each trial
Try to complete the experiment in a concise manner and perform it in the same environment each time. The time that...
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