Design and Construction of a Biogas Plant

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  • Topic: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Hydrogen sulfide
  • Pages : 38 (13082 words )
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  • Published : January 27, 2013
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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A BIOGAS PLANT

BY

SADIQ SANUSI UMAR
SCI/05/PHY/04045

A final year Project submitted to
The Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bayero University Kano.

NOVEMBER 2009.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Verily, all praise is due to Allah, the eternally besought of all, the most conclusive of all judges. Glory is unto Him whose aid and forgiveness we seek. May Allah extol and send blessings of peace upon His Slave and Messenger, the best of His creation, and the faithful to His revelation, Muhammad (S.A.W) the son of Abdullah; upon his family, his companions and those who have clutched to his Sunnah with their morals until the Day of Reckoning. The number of words, sentences and paragraphs meant to seal and certify the approval of this project will be shortened without the recognition of the enormous task shouldered by my beloved parents, who were firmly behind me up to the fruition of this endeavor. Indeed, their much deserved reward is with Him in whose hands reside our lives. I wish to register my weighty gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. A.O Musa, for his maximum effort in going through the scripts and making indispensable corrections. May the Almighty reward him. As a final point, I will not fail to acknowledge the encouragement, counsel and support I received from my good friends and well wishers. May Allah, Who is free from all error and absentmindedness, bless all of us, and may He cause the efforts of all drawn in to be purely for Him, and may He store its reward for us with Himself. Ameen.

ABSTRACT
Anaerobic digestion is a process that occurs in nature and produces biogas as a by-product. Biogas typically contains between 60 and 70 percent methane. This methane content makes biogas an excellent source of renewable energy to replace natural gas and other fossil fuels. Anaerobic treatment has been historically used to biologically stabilize high-strength wastes at a low cost. In many cases, the biogas has not been used as an energy resource. Rather, it has been burnt in a flare and discharged to the atmosphere. Concerns over the environment and rising costs for energy have caused a resurgence of interest in anaerobic treatment and a new interest in using biogas produced during this treatment of organic wastes. A biogas plant, which was a combination of Chinese and Indian design, was constructed to serve as a demonstration plant and for experimental study. The cowdung was made to ferment in the digester over a 40 day period and some quantity of the gas, totaling 4.83cm3, was obtained. The graph drawn from the experimental data assisted in the interpretation of the gas production made.

Table of Contents
Title Pagei
Certificationii
Dedicationiii
Acknowledgementiv
Abstractv
Table of Contentsiv

Chapter One: General Introduction
1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………….6 1.1 The Science of Biogas Production………………….………………….8 1.2 Raw Materials for the production of Biogas…………..………….8 1.3 Composition of Biogas………………………………………………………8 1.4 Biogas generation process………………………………………………..10 1.5 Benefits of Biogas…………………………………………………………….14 1.6 Purification of Biogas plant……………………………………………...17

Chapter Two: Biogas Digester Basics
2.0 Biogas digester types…………………………………………………….22 2.1 Parts of a Biogas plant…………………………………………………..29 2.2 Factors affecting Biogas generation……………………………….38 2.3 Biogas Appliances…………………………………………………………40 Chapter Three: Design and Construction

3.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………47 3.1 Materials used……………………………………………………………..48 3.2 Methodology……………………………………………………………….49 Chapter Four: Results and Discussion
4.0 Results………………………………………………………………………...50 4.1 Discussion……………………………………………………………………52 Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Suggestion for further work. 5.0 Summary……………………………………………………………………..53 5.1 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………54 5.2 Suggestion for further work…………………………………………..55

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Energy...
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