Descriptive Statistics: Tabular and Graphical Presentations

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chapter 2
Chapter 2
Descriptive Statistics: Tabular and Graphical Presentations

Learning Objectives

1.Learn how to construct and interpret summarization procedures for qualitative data such as : frequency and relative frequency distributions, bar graphs and pie charts.

2.Learn how to construct and interpret tabular summarization procedures for quantitative data such as: frequency and relative frequency distributions, cumulative frequency and cumulative relative frequency distributions.

3.Learn how to construct a dot plot, a histogram, and an ogive as graphical summaries of quantitative data.

4.Learn how the shape of a data distribution is revealed by a histogram. Learn how to recognize when a data distribution is negatively skewed, symmetric, and positively skewed.

5.Be able to use and interpret the exploratory data analysis technique of a stem-and-leaf display.

6.Learn how to construct and interpret cross tabulations and scatter diagrams of bivariate data. Solutions:

1.
|Class |Frequency |Relative Frequency | |A |60 |60/120 = 0.50 | |B | 24 |24/120 = 0.20 | |C | 36 |36/120 = 0.30 | | |120 | 1.00 |

2.a.1 - (.22 + .18 + .40) = .20

b..20(200) = 40

c/d.
|Class |Frequency |Percent Frequency | |A |.22(200) = 44 | 22 | |B |.18(200) = 36 | 18 | |C |.40(200) = 80 | 40 | |D |.20(200) = 40 | 20 | |Total |200 |100 |

3.a.360° x 58/120 = 174°

b.360° x 42/120 = 126°

c.
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d.
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4.a.The data are qualitative.

b.
| | |Percent Frequency | |Newspaper |Frequency | | |Liberty Times |24 |48 | |China Times |15 |30 | |United Daily News |7 |14 | |Apple Daily |4 |8 | |Total: |50 |100 |

c.
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d.Liberty Times has the largest market share. China Times is second.

5.a.
|Name |Frequency |Relative Frequency |Percent Frequency | |Chan |10 |.200 |20.0% | |Chang |7 |.140 |14.0% | |Lee |8 |.160 |16.0% | |Liu |7 |.140 |14.0% | |Wang |12 |.240 |24.0% | |Young |6 |.120 |12.0% | | |50 |1.000 |100.0% |

b.
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c.Chan.200 x 360 = 72.0(
Chang.140 x 360 = 50.4(
Lee.160 x 360 = 58.6(
Liu.140 x 360 = 50.4(
Wang.240 x 360 = 86.4(
Young.120 x 360 = 43.2(

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d.Most common: Wang, Chan, and Lee

6.a.
|Book |Frequency...
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