Describe the Energy Equation and Explain the Role of the 3 Systems That Play in Getting Fuel and Oxygen to Living Cells. (P4)

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Describe the energy equation and explain the role of the 3 systems that play in getting fuel and oxygen to living cells. (P4) Fuel + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water + energy
The digestive, respiratory and cardiovascular systems all work together to provide energy for the tissues and organs of the body. The role of the respiratory is to pass oxygen into the blood. The respiratory system oxygenates blood. Oxygen then easily diffuses from the alveoli in the lung through the epithelial walls into the bloodstream. If your body were deprived of oxygen, cells would start to die. The role of the cardiovascular system is to circulate blood around the body through the pulmonary circuit which takes blood takes up oxygen in the lungs and the systemic circuit where oxygenated blood is distributed to body tissues. Then the cardiovascular system supplies oxygenated blood to the parts that make up all three systems, allowing respiration to happen and the cells, and organs to work. The role of the digestive system is to break down food from complex chemicals into simple chemicals that can be used as fuel. It does this using enzymes such as proteases, amylases and lipase which leaves the body with amino acids, glucose, glycerol and fatty acids which can be used around the body .The digestive system breaks down food, nutrients from the food that body needs diffuses easily through epithelial walls of the villi into capillaries and passes in the bloodstream to the organs and cells that are in need energy. The end products, carbon dioxide and water or removed from the body by the respiratory and renal system.

Describe the 6 forms of energy and explain how the body uses each form. Define what is meant by the metabolism and explain the two types. (M1) 1. Chemical- Generally chemical energy is a form of potential energy and is controlled by things such as food, fuels and batteries. Energy comes from this because of chemical reactions. Energy is stored in the food, when this is then digested the food is broken down and the energy is passed onto the cells of the body. The process of breaking down and using the food by our cells is called respiration. During respiration, the chemical energy is converted to into other types of energy such as heat and kinetic energy that the body can then use. 2. Kinetic- All moving things have kinetic energy. This energy is created by movement or motion. Heavy objects will move faster and have more kinetic energy than lighter objects. The body has kinetic energy if moving. If walking or running the body will have kinetic energy, the energy will help you take the next step. 3. Thermal- This energy comes from heat. The hotter something is the faster the particles move around therefore the more thermal energy there is. The body converts stored potential energy in the food you eat into thermal energy which keeps the body at 37.5°C. 4. Sound- Sound is vibrations which travel in waves and can be heard through different mediums. Sound is used by the body to be able to hear. The outer ear area is there to collect sound vibrations. This sound is then amplified and passed from the outer ear to the ear drum. From here auditory nerves pick up on things such as pitch and volume. 5. Electrical- Nerve impulses are the body’s electricity. The nervous system is a network of cells called neurons which transport information in the form of electrical signals around the body. 6. Light- Light Energy is the movement of photons. The sun is a major source of light. Light is needed to maintain a normal function of the body. Light and darkness are needed to control the production of melatonin, serotonin and hormones that the body needs. Sunlight is needed by the hypothalamus, pineal and other glands of the brain.

Metabolism is a group of chemical reactions that take place in the cells of the body. The metabolism changes the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed by the body, for example...
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