Describe the development of the Nazi Party in Germany (1922-1939), and analyse Hitler's role in this.

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Describe the development of the Nazi Party in Germany

(1922-1939), and analyse Hitler's role in this.

In order to analyse the Nazi Party's development through 1922-1939 it is crucial that we examine those fundamental aspects concerning the historical and contemporary factors surrounding both the formation of the Nazi Party, and Hitler's contribution to the party both before and after the Nazi regime came to power. This being historically the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic, demonstrated by political unrest and economic instability. The contemporary factors being the apparent economic boom fuelled by the Dawes Plan and the disastrous effects of the Wall Street Crash resulting in mass unemployment, the parties close links with the Sturm Abteilung (SA or Brown Shirts), the Nazi's focus on German unemployment and how this was directly related to the Nazi Party's rise in electoral strength, and finally the Nazi's method of administration and it's effecting results throughout the 1930's. In addition to this it is essential that we analyse the party's propagandist system, this in relation to Hitler and Hitler's own self-development aiding a 'cult of personality' and the then, developing effect on both the party internally and external party popularity. The degree to which Mein Kampf can be seen as a blueprint not only for World War II, but also as a manifesto for the Nazi regime throughout it's period in office, and considering these points, to what extent Hitler was in sole command of the party as opposed to the party being in control of him.

The formation and continued development of the Nazi Party like many other political parties in Germany at the time was closely linked to the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic, a direct result of political unrest characterised by economic instabilities and the lack of political decisiveness illustrated by; the acceptance of the unpopular Versailles Treaty, the apparent industrial boom fuelled by American loans, and the world economic crisis beginning in 1929 with the Wall Street Crash. German soldiers returning form their apparent defeat in World War I were bitter and felt betrayed by the Weimar, seeing the acceptance of Versailles over the Armistice (ceasefire) as a 'stab in the back'. The soldier's feelings of duplicity were further enhanced by the realisation that their families were, like them, victims of what they saw as an inadequate and disorganised government, exemplified by starvation, unemployment and social deprivation.

By 1923 Germany was gripped in economic chaos, not only a result of centralised economics but from continued pressure from France and Belgium to pay war reparations. Frances belief in Germany's ability to pay, in connection with Germany's claim she could not pay reparations led to the 1923 Franco - Belgium invasion of the Ruhr - a heavily industrialised area of Germany. This action further enhanced hyperinflation and finally caused the German Mark to collapse.

The Munich Putsch was a direct result of the Franco-Belgium invasion of the Ruhr and occurred in 1923. This was an attempt by Hitler and The Nazi Party aided by General Ludendorff to overthrow the Weimar by marching on the Rathuas (Town Hall). This attempt at a seizure of power was unsuccessful, twenty-eight Nazi's and four policemen died - Hitler himself was sentenced to five years imprisonment. However, Hitler only served nine months of this sentence, this being a result of sympathetic supporters in the Munich judiciary. Whilst in prison Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) and premeditated his future strategy for taking control of Germany.

On his released Hitler made reforms to the party making it not only a street fighting group, but also a political organisation, promising a strong government and national unity, a retreat from the hated Versailles Treaty, and end to unemployment with increased power to each of the working, middle and land owning classes. Also, Hitler promised to...
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