DESCRIBE AND EVALUATE THE MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY (25 MARKS)
The multi- store model of memory is an explanation to how memory processes work, we hear, see and feel many things but only a small number are remembered, the model was first introduced by Atkinson and Shiffrin in (1968), whereby they explained tat the multi-store model of memory has 3 stages which is sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory, this information processing approach to Cognitive Psychology, describes the mental functions which occur between stimulus and response, it is based upon the model of the mind as a computer.
Unprocessed data enters the sensory memory from external reality through the sense organs and is encoded into a ‘mind-friendly’ format, Sperling (1960) showed that the sensory information store has limited capacity, so our attention processes are important in determining what passes onto the short-term memory.
In addition, information selected for further processing passes from the sensory memory store into the short-term memory, it is thought that the short-term memory holds information in the form of images, sounds or meanings, information in the short-term memory is kept alive by continual rehearsal of it, an example study for the life-span of the short-term memory was conducted by Peterson and Peterson (1959) in which they gave participants a constant trigram to remember and then a large number. To prevent rehearsal, they counted backwards in threes from the number and then recalled the trigram. Participants were unable to recall the trigram at all after 18-30 seconds indicating that this is was the life span of items in the short-term memory.
Long term memory is thought to have an unlimited capacity to retain information, it can hold material for long periods of time, coding of information is mainly semantic within the long term store. As the material flows through the stores, it becomes more abstract and compressed. An implication is that...
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