Derived Positions

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DERIVED POSITION

• Position derived from Standing

By alternation of the arm

Wing Standing

The hands rest on the crests of the iliac, the fingers, which are extended and adducted, being anterior and the thumbs posterior. The wrists are extended, forearms are pronated, elbows flexed and shoulders adducted. The elbow point straight side ways.

Muscle work: -

• The adductors of the shoulder joint
• Extensors of the elbow work slightly to press the hand to the trunk.

Effect and uses.

• As the arms are held away from the trunk from the axilla to the iliac crests, the positions allow the phys. To grasp the patient round the shoulder during some trunk exercise. • The fixed position of arm prevents their swinging during trunk exercises. • As this swing usually amplifies the movement and leaves the thorax free, the position should be avoided unless it serves some definite and useful purpose

2. Low wing Standing

The hands rest on the crests of the iliac, the fingers being placed across the front of the hip joints. The wrists are extended, forearms are pronated, elbows flexed and shoulders adducted. The elbow point straight side ways.

Muscle work: -

• The adductors of the shoulder joint
• Extensors of the elbow work slightly to press the hand to the trunk.

Effect and uses.

• This is a position of control as the patient is able to feel with the hands the movement of flexion at the hip joint, tilting and lateral swing or any rotation of pelvis, which may occur during the performance of exercise.

3. Bend Standing

The shoulders are laterally rotated and adducted strongly, the elbows are flexed, and the forearms are supinated with wrists and fingers flexed to rest above the lateral border of the acromion process.

Muscle work: -

• The lateral rotator and adductors of the shoulder work strongly. • The retractors and depressors of the scapulae work strongly as fixators. • The flexor of the elbows and Supinator of fore arm work to maintain the position of forearms. • The flexor of the wrists and finger may work slightly.

Effect and uses.

• The position is corrective for the position of the upper back, and the thorax is expanded. It may therefore be held during some trunk exercises to intensify their effect or used prior to arm stretching exercises. • Full flexion of the elbow is reduced the leverage of the abductor muscles of the shoulder joint, making it a suitable position from which to perform abduction movements when these muscles are weak

4. Reach Standing
The shoulders are flexed and the elbows extended so that the arms are held parallel, Shoulder width apart and at right angle to the body.

Muscle work: -

• The shoulder flexors maintain the position against gravity. • The transverse back muscles control the forward movement of the scapulae round the chest wall, which is associated with shoulder flexion. • The extensors of the elbow, Radial flexors of the wrist and Extensor of the Finger work slightly to keep the arm straight.

Effect and uses.

• The position is used prior to some arm and trunk exercises in sagittal plane, and to assist balance during balance walking sideways. • The hand may be supported on, or may grasp, some apparatus and this obviate the use of the shoulder flexors muscles when the arm are used to control or steady the body for leg or head exercises.

5. Yard Standing
The arms are straight and elevated sideways to a horizontal position.

Muscle work: -

• The abductors, extensors and lateral Rotators of the shoulder work Rotators of the Scapulae to stabilize the arms. • The Extensors of the Elbows, Wrists, and Fingers work to hold the limb in a straight line. • The tendency to elevate the shoulder girdle is...
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