❖ Bound Morphemes like-ify and –cation are called derivational morphemes. When they are added to base, anew word with a new meaning is derived ❖ Example : The addition of –ify to pure= Purify means “to make pure” The addition of –cation to purify= Purification means “the process of making pure”. ❖ This means that we must have a list of the derivational morphemes in our mental dictionaries as well as the rules that determine how they are added to a root or stem. ❖ The form that results from the addition of derivational morpheme is called a derived word. ❖ Derivational Morphemes have clear semantic content.
❖ In this sense they are like content words, except that they are not words. ❖ As we have seen, when a derivational morpheme added to a base, it adds meaning. ❖ The derived word may also be of a different grammatical class than the original word, as shown by suffixes such as –able and-ly ❖ Example : When a verb is suffixed with –able the result is an adjective, as in desire +able = desirable When the suffix –en is added to an adjective, a verb is derived, as in dark +en = Darken When =ie is added to an adjective, a noun is formed, as in sweet +ie = sweetie Other examples:
Noun to adjectiveVerb to Noun Adjective to adverb boy+-ish= Boyish clear+-ance = clearanceexact+-ly = exactly virtue+ -ous= virtuoussing+-er=singerclear+-ly =clearly
Noun to VerbAdjective to NounVerb to Adjective
moral+-ize= Moralizetall+-ness= tallnessread+-able=readable hast+-en=hastenfree+-dom=freedomcreate+-ive= creative
❖ Some derivational suffixes do not cause a change in grammatical class. Prefixes never do. Examples:
Noun to NounVerb to VerbAdjective to Adjective
friend +-ship = friendshipun- + do= undopink+-ish= pinkish