Mood disorders have been recognized and written since the beginning of the history of medicine. Mood disorders are mental disorders characterized by periods of depression, sometimes alternating with periods of elevated mood. Mood disorders or affective disorders, is a category of mental health problems which include all types of depression and bipolar disorder (Ohio State University Medical Center, 2007).
One of the most noticeable features of mood disorder is their episodic quality. The nature of the episode and its duration can determine the diagnosis and treatment. Major depressive episodes will occur over a period of several weeks or several months. The episode itself typically last several months and ends, as it began, gradually (Coryell, Akiskal, Leon, et al,. 1994). Major depressive episode patients undergo deep changes in their life. These changes include: mood, motivation, thinking, physical and motor functioning. The features of major depressive episode describe by DSM-IV-TR as follow; depressed mood, loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities, disturbance of appetite, sleep disturbance, psychomotor retardation, or agitation, loss of energy, feeling of worthless and guilt, and difficulties in thinking.
Manic episode normally occurs out of a sudden for a few days and it is shorter than major depressive disorder. Mania is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood, energy, and unusual thought patterns (CSS Mania, 2004). Individual who simultaneously meet diagnosis criteria for both manic episode and major depressive episode are diagnosed with mixed episode. Typical examples include tearfulness during a manic episode or racing thoughts during a depressive episode. DSM-IV-TR describes the prominent 8 features; elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, inflated self-esteem, sleeplessness, talkativeness, flight of ideas, distractibility, hyperactivity, and reckless behavior. Manic episode will be... [continues]
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