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1. Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to many causes, including biologic and genetic, cognitive, behavioral, and social and interpersonal factors. Which factors do you believe are the most important to the development of MDD? In addition to their roles as causal factors, having MDD can lead to substantial changes in these same domains. How does having MDD affect a person’s thoughts, behaviors, and social interactions? What effects can MDD have on how family and friends interact with the depressed person? How can these interpersonal changes result in the maintenance or exacerbation of depression in the afflicted individual? •I believe that genetic and social, and interpersonal factors are important in the development of MDD. People with MDD start having suicidal thoughts, they begin to get irritated with things/people, losing their concentration, insecurity of themselves. Positive results can occur when family and friends are supportive. In Liona’s case, her mother attend her meeting and got educated on Liona’s diagnosis. Her mother’s support helped her with her depression. 2.As noted in the case, if all the criteria have been met, a person can be diagnosed as having two depressive disorders at the same time-MDD and dysthymic disorder. What are the differences between MDD and dysthymic disorder? Why might it be clinically important to diagnose both if the features of MDD and dysthymic disorder are present? •Major depression tends to be more episodic whereas, by definition, dysthymia reflects chronic, less severe depressive symptoms. If a person’s MDD follows a longstanding dysthymic disorder, which is often referred to as “double depression.”Then, it is appropriate to diagnose with both MDD and dysthymia disorder. 3.In addition to the psychosocial intervention described in the treatment of Liona, medications are another widely used method of MDD treatment in children, adolescents,...
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