DHO 111 DAC and DAD HAND INSTRUMENTS AND DEVICES Dental Tools 4 PARTS OF DENTAL HAND INSTRUMENTS Handle Shank - joins the handle and a blade or nib. Cutting instrument = blade and a cutting edge, non-cutting instrument = nib and a face or point. . BASIC INSTRUMENTS MECS Mouth Mirror Increased visibility Reflecting light Retracting soft tissues Usual sizes No. 4 and 5 Constricted areas = No.2 2 general types: Plane mirror Magnifying mirror Cotton Pliers Dressing pliers Cotton pliers Serrated / non serrated Locking / non locking Useful to pick up small items and remove small items from the mouth. Used to to avoid contamination. Explorer are sharp, pointed metallic instruments so designed that the various surfaces of teeth may be conveniently reached with the explorer point. sense of touch mechanical penetration of defects in tooth surfaces. locating caries and enamel defects Spoon shaped excavator Used to remove decay from the tooth. Spoon out decay GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF OPERATIVE INSTRUMENTS Dr. G.V. Black 6 Categories Cutting instruments Hand Hatchets Chisels Hoes Excavators Others Rotary Burs Stones Disks Others Condensing instruments Hand Pluggers Plastic instruments Spatulas Carvers Burnishers Packing instruments Finishing and polishing instruments Hand Orangewood sticks Polishing points Finishing strips Rotary Finishing burs Mounted brushes Mounted stones Rubber cups Impregnated disks and wheels Isolation instruments Rubber dam frame clamps, forceps, punch Saliva ejector Cotton roll holder Evacuating tips and equipment Miscellaneous instruments Mouth mirrors Explorers Probes Scissors Pliers Others HAND CUTTING INSTRUMENTS NOMENCLATURE Dr. Black prescribed four classes, similar to a biological classification:
Order Purpose of instrument Suborder Position or manner of use Class Form of working end Subclass Shape of the shank
DR. BURDEN NOTES
DHO 111 DAC and DAD
EXAMPLE: BI-ANGLE SPOON EXCAVATOR Cutting Instruments used to cut hard or soft tissues of the mouth
Excavators used for removal of caries and refinement of the internal parts of the preparation.
Amalgam carrier transports the freshly prepared amalgam restorative material to the cavity preparation. Single and double ended When the lever (located on the top of the carrier) is depressed, the amalgam is ejected into the cavity preparation. Amalgam Plugger/ condensers used to condense or pack the amalgam filling materials into the cavity preparation. The hammer-like working end is l arge enough to compress the soft amalgam without sinking into it. Carvers. After the amalgam is condensed, it must then be carved to approximately the same original tooth structure. Carvers have sharp cutting edges that are used to shape, form, or cut tooth anatomy into amalgam restorations.
Endodontic Files These tools are particularly used to clean and shape the root canal, with the concept being to perform complete chemomechanical debridement of the root canal to the length of the apical foramen. Scalers used primarily in the prophylactic and periodontal care Ultrasonic scaler An ultrasonic instrument is one of the first tools used by dentists during the teeth cleaning process. This particular instrument is used with water while creating high frequency vibrations that help to loosen plaque and tartar. NON CUTTING INSTRUMENT Mirror, Explorer, Amalgam Condenser etc. Amalgam well The amalgam filling material is placed into this well after it is mixed. The dentist would then use an amalgam carrier to scoop out the material and place it into the tooth.
Burnishers. When the carving is complete, the dentist may use burnishers. used to smooth and polish the restoration. remove scratches left on the amalgam surface by a carving instrument.
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