Dengue in its initial stage is not deadly. However, ignoring symptoms or being infected again by a different serotype of virus or having another chronic disease can up complication risks and may result in dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome.
Symptoms usually last for 2–7 days, after an incubation period of 4–10 days. The characteristic symptoms of dengue include:
Sudden-onset of fever (40°C/ 104°F). Fever is usually biphasic in nature, breaking and then returning for one or two days ii)
Headache, pain behind the eyes
Muscle and joint pains
Swollen glands or skin rash that is similar to measles
When dengue advances into the critical stage it can result in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets in case of hemorrhagic fever, or dangerously low blood pressure in case of dengue shock syndrome. The critical stage can lead to:
Fluid accumulation in the chest and abdominal cavity due to increased capillary permeability and leakage, which leads to depletion of fluid from the circulation and decreased blood supply to vital organs ii)
Organ dysfunction and severe bleeding, typically from the gastrointestinal tract iii)
Respiratory distress, rapid breathing, fatigue, restlessness iv)
Severe abdominal pain
Persistent vomiting or blood in vomit
The signs and symptoms of malaria typically begin 8–25 days following infection; however, symptoms may occur later in those who have taken antimalarial medications as prevention. Initial manifestations of the disease—common to all malaria species—are similar to flu-like symptoms, and can resemble other conditions such as septicemia, gastroenteritis, and viral diseases. The presentation may include headache, fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, hemoglobin in the urine, retinal damage, and convulsions. The classic symptom of malaria is paroxysm—a cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and...
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