Dengue

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CASE STUDY
OF
DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER
GRADE III

Introduction

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. It is a life threatening condition resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. In a small portion of these cases the virus causes increase vascular permeability that lead s to bleeding diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) known as dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Typically, people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic (80%) or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever. Others have more severe illness (5%), and in a small proportion it is life-threatening. The incubation period (time between exposure and onset of symptoms) ranges from 3–14 days, but most often it is 4–7 days. Therefore, travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home. Children often experience symptoms similar to those of the common cold and gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea), and generally have less severe symptoms than adults, but are at greater risk of severe complications. The course of infection is divided into three phases: febrile, critical, and recovery. In febrile phase involves high fever, often over 40 °C (104 °F), and is associated with generalized pain and a headache; this usually lasts two to seven days. In critical phase, this follows the resolution of the high fever and typically lasts one to two days. During this phase there may be significant fluid accumulation in the chest and abdominal cavity due to increased capillary permeability and leakage. This leads to depletion of fluid from the circulation and decreased blood supply to vital organs. In recovery phase occurs next, with resorption of the leaked fluid into the bloodstream. This usually lasts two to three days. The improvement is often striking, but there may be severe itching and a slow heart rate. The reason for studying or knowing more about Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is, the diseases is very fatal when it is not discovered immediately, so we must be all aware about the s/Sx so that the disease can be easily detected to avoid different risk and complication and also death.

Patient’s Profile

Name: Child X
Age: 5 years old
Address: Alagao, Bauan Batangas
Birthday: may 22, 2007
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: roman catholic
Date of admission: October 9, 2012
Time of Admission: 8:00 pm
Chief complain: fever cough and colds
Admitting diagnosis: to consider dengue hemorrhagic fever
Final diagnosis: dengue hemorrhagic fever grade 3

Patient’s history

Clinical appraisal
Child x admiited for the first time at Bauan General Hospital on October 9, 2012 complaining of Fever,cough and colds with the diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Present Health History
Client’s condition started 3 days prior to admission. Patient had an on an off fever with cough and colds. Then 2 days prior to admission, patient still have fever accompanied by abdominal pain and vomits twice at home. One day prior to admission, patient is a febrile, but few hours later there is recurrence of fever and there is decrease of appetite. Patient was brought to his pediatrician’s clinic for consultation. Different tests were performed like CBC, and urinalysis. Then after that, he has been referred to Bauan General Hospital for further evaluation and examination. Then he has been admitted here at Bauan General Hospital.

Past Health History
According to the parents of the patient, the child did not experienced having serious health problems other than fever, cough and colds. He had a complete immunization and no known allergies. He had no previous hospitalization....
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