CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction about the sector:BANKING Banking, the business of providing financial services to consumers and business. The basic services a bank provides are checking accounts, savings accounts and time deposits that can be used to save money for future use; loans that consumers and businesses can use to purchase goods and services; and basic cash management services such as check cashing and foreign currency exchange. TYPES Four types of banks specialize in offering these basic banking services: 1) Commercial banks, 2) Savings and loan associations, 3) Savings banks, and 4) Credit unions. A broader definition of a bank is any financial institution that receives, collects, Transfers, pays, exchanges, lends, invests, or safeguards money for its customers. This broader definition includes many other financial institutions that are not usually thought of as banks. These institutions include finance companies, investment companies, investment banks, insurance companies, pension funds, security brokers and dealers, mortgage companies, and real estate investment trusts.
PURPOSE Banking services serve two primary purposes. First, by supplying customers with the basic mediums-of-exchange (cash, checking accounts, and credit cards), Second, by accepting money deposits from savers and then lending the money to borrowers, banks encourage the flow of money to productive use and investments. This in turn allows the economy to grow. Enabling the flow of money from savers to investors is called financial intermediation, and it is extremely important to a free market economy.
1.2 Industry Profile:a. Origin and Development of industry:Banking in India Banking in India originated in the first decade of 18th century. The General Bank of India came into existence in 1786. This was followed by Bank of Hindustan. Both these banks are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India being established as "The Bank of Bengal" in Calcutta in June 1806. A couple of decades later, foreign banks like Credit Lyonnais started their Calcutta operations in the 1850s. At that point of time, Calcutta was the most active trading port, mainly due to the trade of the British Empire, and due to which banking activity took roots there and prospered. The first fully Indian owned bank was the Allahabad Bank, which was established in 1865. By the 1900s, the market expanded with the establishment of banks such as Punjab National Bank, in 1895 in Lahore and Bank of India, in 1906, in Mumbai - both of which were founded under private ownership. The Reserve 2
Bank of India formally took on the responsibility of regulating the Indian banking sector from 1935. After India's independence in 1947, the Reserve Bank was nationalized and given broader powers. The banking in India was controlled and dominated by the presidency banks, namely, the Bank of Bombay, the Bank of Bengal, and the Bank of Madras - which later on merged to form the Imperial Bank of India, and Imperial Bank of India, upon India's independence, was renamed the State Bank of India. The presidency banks were like the central banks and discharged most of the functions of central banks. They were established under charters from the British East India Company. The exchange banks, mostly owned by the Europeans, concentrated on financing of foreign trade. Indian joint stock banks were generally under capitalized and lacked the experience and maturity to compete with the presidency banks, and the exchange banks. There was potential for many new banks as the economy was growing. Under these circumstances, many Indians came forward to set up banks, and many banks were set up at that time, and a number of them set up around that time continued to survive and prosper even now like Bank of India and Corporation Bank, Indian Bank, Bank of Baroda, and Canara Bank.
b. Growth and Present Status of the Industry:By the 1960s, the Indian banking...
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