Demonstration and Laboratory Method of Teaching in Nursing

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DEMONSTRATION
INTRODUCTION
The demonstration method teaches by exhibition and explanation. Although it is sometimes used to refer all illustrative teaching, the term demonstration usually is taken to mean explanation of a process, as opposed to exemplification of the object itself. One of the advantage of demonstration is that it trains the student in the art of careful observation, a quality which is so essential to a good nurse. The demonstration method in itself is learning through observation; it uses several senses. A second advantage of demonstration is its concrete quality. The student not only can hear the explanation, but also can see the procedure or process. As a result, the demonstration method projects a mental image in the students mind, which fortifies verbal knowledge. The demonstration method has universal appeal, because it is understandable to all and also adaptable to both individual and group teaching. MEANING

Demonstration as a teaching strategy refers to the visual presentation of the action and activities or practical work related to the facts and principles of a delivered lesson by the teacher in the classroom, aiming to facilitate the task of teaching and learning. A teacher while using this strategy, demonstrates in a practical form, the objects, instruments, phenomenon, action and events related to the teaching of the lesson. DEFINITION

“Demonstration can be defined as visualized explanation of facts, concepts and procedures”. (Basavanthappa B.,T.). The purposes of demonstration:
a) Those designed to show the learners ‘how’ to perform certain psychomotor skill. Here the learner must reproduce exactly the behavior of demonstration. b) Those designed to show the learner ‘why’ certain things occur. Here the behavior is intended only as a strategy to aid the learner’s understanding of a concept of principle. Uses of the Demonstration Method

* To demonstrate experiments and the use of experimental equipment in the science laboratory. * To demonstrate procedures in the classroom and the ward. To review or revise procedures to meet special situation or to introduce a new procedure. * To teach the patient a procedure or treatment which he must carry out in home. * To demonstrate a procedure at the bed side or in the ward conference room. Demonstration of a procedure in its natural setting has more meaning than when carried out in an artificial environment, such as the classroom. * To demonstrate different approaches in establishing rapport with patients, so that most efficient nurse patient relationship may be established. Advantages of demonstration method

* It activates several senses. This increases learning, because the more senses used the better the opportunity for the learning. * It provides an opportunity for observational learning.
* It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the ‘why’ of a procedure. * It commands interest by use of concrete illustrations.
* It correlates theory with practice.
The demonstration method, as used in the teaching of nursing procedures, has several added advantages. These have particular reference to student demonstration of procedure already learned. * It gives the teacher an opportunity to evaluate the student’s knowledge of a procedure, and determine whether re-teaching is necessary. * It points out that the student must have the knowledge and must be able to apply it immediately. This, of course serves as a strong motivational force. * Return demonstration under the supervision of the teacher provides an opportunity for well directed practice before the student must use the procedure in ward. PHASES OF DEMONSTRATION

Planning and preparation
* Formulate the behavioral objectives.
* Perform a skill analysis and determine the sequence.
* Assess the entry behaviors of learners and determine prerequisites. * Formulate the lesson plan, with particular reference to : a....
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