Sindh has the 2nd highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.628. The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 million. Just under half of the population are urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah District, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century. According to the 1998 Population Census of Pakistan, Sindhi-speaking households make up 63.00% of Sindh's population; Urdu-speaking households make up 18.00%; Punjabi 06.99%; Pashto 04.01%; Balochi 2.11%; Saraiki 01.00%; Hazaragi/Persian/Dari 0.89% and other languages 04.00%. Other languages include Gujarati, Memoni, Kutchi (last one being a dialect of Sindhi), Khowar, Thari, Luri and Brahui. The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat, various sub-groups related to the Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh and to a lesser extent Sindhis of Pashtun origins. Sindhis of Balochi origins make up about 30% of the total Sindhi population (they however speak Sindhi as their native tongue), while Urdu-speaking Muhajirs make over 18% of the total population of the province. Also found in the province are groups of Sindhi tribes claiming descent from early Muslim settlers including Arabs, and Persian.
Sindh's population is mainly Muslim (91.32%), and Sindh is also home to nearly all (93%) of Pakistan's Hindus, who form 8.5% of the province's population. The majority of Muslims are Sunni Hanafi followed by Shia Ithnā‘ashariyyah. There are communities of Shia Nizari Ismailis and Shia Mustaali Bohras[disambiguation needed]. The non-Muslim communities includes Hindus, Christians, Qadianis and Zorastarians. A large number of Hindus migrated to India after independence of Pakistan in 1947 while Muslim refugees, Muhajirs, arrived from India.
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