Demographic Transition

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2. The demographic transition model seeks to explain the transformation of countries from having high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. In developed countries this transition began in the eighteenth century and continues today. Less developed countries began the transition later and are still in the midst of earlier stages of the model. Factors driving this transition model in developing country are medical practice, technology, agricultural productivity and distribution, culture and nature of the economy Thomas Malthus theory was based on the assumption that the power of population is much greater than the power of the earth to provide survival for man. In his own words “passion between the sexes is an inevitable phenomenon hence, when unchecked, population would grow at such a high rate that it would outstrip food supply which would lead to starvation”. According to Malthus, disease, food shortage and death due to starvation, were nature’s ways to control population

The demographic transition model


Stage one of the model illustrates high CBR and CDR. This stage depicts an era prior to the Industrial Revolution when families had many children. More children meant more people to work on the family farm. Other factors that contributed to the CBR included no family planning, and faith of the people, which may look at large families as a sign of wealth and fertility. 

Stage two as medications, sanitation and technology improved in the mid-1800s, Western European countries seen a decline in death rates. More infants were surviving, and a longer life expectancy was established due to higher living standards and health care. The birth rate however continued to increase due to traditional views of wealth and fertility. As a result, populations grew rapidly

Stage three shows a low CBR and CDR. CDR is already low due to improved technologies and health care. Family planning, better education, lower infant mortality rate, a more...
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