Kerala: A unique demographic state in India. The main features of Kerala are the high Female/Male sex ratio, low population growth rate, high literacy rate, low infant mortality rate and high life expectancy at birth. Even though the economic development of Kerala is less compared to some states of India, It has achieved the impressive performance in demographic transition. These demographic features of Kerala are the best in India and some are even comparable with developed countries. One of the main feature of Kerala which separates it from the rest of the country is Female/Male sex ratio which is 1084 whereas the India’s sex ratio is 940. Another distinct feature is the Female literacy rate of almost 92% which is far beyond the national average. The age of marriage for females is higher for Kerala. These features led Kerala to the greater women empowerment, gender equality and female friendly state. Kerala can be set as an example to other states, even with low economic development one state can achieve better quality of demographic parameters. It has proved that people development and women empowerment can bring good demographic transition. It is important to study Kerala’s demographic transitions and to know what lessons can be learnt from it.
Population Growth Rate:
According to the 2011 Census, the total population of Kerala is 33,387,677. The male population of Kerala is 16,021,290 and the female population is 17,366,387. In the 2001 Census the population was 31,841,374. The total population growth in last decade was 4.86 while in
De c a d a l Gro wth R a te in C e n s u s 2 0 1 1 Fo r I n d ia n S ta te s a n d I n d ia 30.00%
% of growth(2001-2011)
25.10% 22.60% 19.20%
Maharashtra Assam Tamil Nadu Bihar Kerala UP AP Chhattisgarh
previous decade it was 9.42%.
Kerala has an area of 38,863 sq. km with a Density of 859 per sq km. As we can see from the graph that Kerala has the minimum growth rate of just 4.9% compared to India’s growth rate of 17.64%. All the major states have a growth of more than 10%. Over the past century, Kerala's population increased five times from 6 million in 1901 to 32 million in 2001. As we can see from the graph, Kerala’s growth rate was higher than the India’s growth rate till 1971, but it started decreasing and it reached the 4.9% in 2011. But India have not changed much till 2001, where it registered a growth rate of 19% in 2001 and 17.6% in 2011. Kerala is also the only state in India to have sub-replacement fertility. Children up to 14 years of age are just 26 percent of the total population, which is lowest among the major states of India. The proportion of working group people (age 15-59) is 63.4 percent against 55.6 percent nationwide.
Female/Male Sex Ratio:
Kerala is a only state in India which has a sex ratio of 1084 females for every 1000 males in 2011. In 2001 census it was 1058 females per 1000 males. The sex ratio of India is far below of only 940 females per 1000 males. The other states which have good sex ratio are Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. These states have shown a growth in their sex ratio in the last decade. But none of these states reached a sex ratio of 1000. The sex ratios of these states are 995(Tamil Nadu), 992(Andhra Pradesh), 991(Chhattisgarh). States like Punjab, Haryana, Jammu Kashmir, Sikkim have a very low sex Ratio. These states have not reached sex ratio of even 900 females per 1000 males.
As we can see from the above graph none of the states have reached a sex ratio of 1000 females per 1000 males.
As we can see from the above graph, Kerala had always have the better sex Ratio than the rest of India. At the start of the century, India have sex raio of nearly 970, but it gradually...