It all started with six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg) that signed the treaty of Paris in 1951 to establish the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) which was later developed on within the 1957 established treaty of Rome. The latter constituted the European Economic Community (EEC) and European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC).
* The ECSC has a more political focus: To achieve a piece settlement primarily between France and Germany.
* The EEC has an economic and political focus: Economically it sought to establish a common or single market in which goods, capital, services and people could move freely within the European Community. Politically it envisioned an ever-closer union among the member states and its people.
To achieve the goals of the EEC the member states decided on sharing sovereignty or national authority in certain policy areas. Only by sharing would it be possible to lock all the member states in a long-term process of market integration.
The integration process is constituted on treaty obligations, shared sovereignty and a new form of international law (= European law).
Sharing sovereignty was something that the member states only agreed upon reluctantly but did so anyway for they understood it was in their nations own best to share with the supranational body (= European Commission), also they retained considerable national control via the Council of Ministers. Yet tension between intergovermentalism (traditional state-to-state relations) and supranationallity has plagued the EU throughout its history. Nonetheless the two are not irreconcilable they complement rather than conflict each other.
Chapter 1: Reconstruction, reconciliation and integration (1945-1957).
Jean Monnet | Robert Schumann | George Marshall |
Director of the French Modernization Plan (FMP). Directed by doing so in order of Charles de Gaulle for he was the one that... [continues]
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