Democracy in Bhutan

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A comparative analysis

of democracy

in Bhutan and Tonga

Naizang

(November 7th, 2012)

Acknowledgement

I wish to thank and acknowledge my module tutor Mr. Sabarjeet Mukherjee and Mr. Mahindra Balasuriya for guiding me throughout my research. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to my colleagues for their advice and help.

Abstract

A comparative analysis of democracy in Bhutan and in Tonga has not been done and this article attempts to make a comparative analysis of democracy in Bhutan and Tonga. The analysis has been done using content analysis method whereby the elements of democracy such as citizen rights and duties, elections, party system and universal adult franchise between the two countries has been compared. After a comparative analysis of democracy in the two countries, it can be noted that the democratic values and the elements of democracy are being maintained by the two nations. However, the success or the failure of democracy in the two nations cannot be predicted since it is just an emerging democratic nation.

Table of Content

Glossary1

Acronyms2

Chapter 13

Introduction3

Chapterisation4

Chapter 25

Literature review5

Chapter 310

Democracy in Bhutan10

Chapter 420

Democracy in Tonga20

Chapter 526

Comparative study of the democratic elements in Bhutan and in Tonga26

Conclusion33

Limitations34

References35

Glossary

Chimi: People’s representative and member of National Assembly

Chhoe-Sid-Nyiden: Dual system of religion and politics (temporal and secular)

Dasho: Honorific title of officers granted red scarf or similar distinctions

Desi: Civil ruler of Bhutan before the establishment of monarchy

Dzongkhag: District

Dzongpoen: Lord or chief of a dzong, a governor

Genja: An agreement or contract

Kidu: Royal Pardon

Lyonchen: Prime Minister

Lyonpo: Minister

Thromde: Municipal bodies

Acronyms

APP: All People’s Party

BPUP: Bhutan People Untied Party

CEC: Constitutional and Electoral Commission

DPFI: Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands

DPT: Druk Phuensum Tshogpa

ECB: Election Commission of Bhutan

EUEOM: European Union Election Observation Mission

FPTP: First Past The Post

HRDM: Human Rights and Democracy Movement

PDP: People’s Democratic Party

RAC: Royal Advisory Council

SNBP: Sustainable Nation Building Party

TDLP: Tongan Democratic Labor Party

Chapter 1

Introduction

The term democracy has been coined using two ancient Greek words, “demos” meaning the people and “kratos” meaning strength (Robertson, 2004, p.136). The most popular definition of democracy was given by Abraham Lincoln that is, democracy is a government for the people, by the people and of the people. In 1950, 20 out of 80 nations claimed to be a democratic country. By the year 1999, 120 out of 192 nations claimed themselves to be a democratic nation (Anckar, 2002, p.207). The world was getting inclined towards having a democratic form of government over other forms of government. In the 21st century, the inclination of the countries to have a democratic form of government could be seen from the events of Arab Spring. The event of Arab Spring has been of great significance in the history of democracy. Even if Arab...
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