TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction of Democracy
2. Definition of Democracy
3. Types of Democracy
4. Characteristics of Democracy
5. Principles of Democracy
6. Advantages & Disadvantages of Democracy
1. Introduction of Democracy
Democracy is the form of government in which the ruling power of a state is legally vested not in any particular class or classes but in the members of the community as a whole. It is a government in which the will of the majority of citizens rules without overriding the rights of the minority. The ideal of democracy is about equality, freedom and welfare for all. It involves the abolition of varies form of restriction and privilege.
Democracy is a system of government in which is rule by the people. Abraham Lincoln defined it as Government of the people, by the people and for the people. Individual freedom ( i.e. freedom of speech, assembly and association, freedom of press, right to education, right to own property, freedom of religion, periodic free and open elections to choose people’s representatives ( Leader), political equality, competing political parties, the right to vote and stand for elections; an independent judiciary and the rule are the essential characteristics or features of the democratic government.
2. DEFINITION OF DEMOCRACY
Democracy in Greek mean Demos= People & Kratos = Power It is a form of government in which the supreme power vested in the people and power exercises directly by them or by their elected representatives under a free electoral system. It is simply a mechanism to enable all adult citizens to be involved in a decision making process, which gives the decision binding legitimacy.
Democracy is a political government either carried out by the people or the power to govern is granted to elect representatives . The term is derived from the Greek : Demokratia “the power to the poople” which comes from the work ‘demos-people and kratos-power”, in the middle of the fifth fourth century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC. Even though there is no specific, universally accepted definition of ‘ Democracy’ there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes equality and freedom. These principles are reflected by all the citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to power and freedom is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution.
Since the end of cold war, many countries across the globe have chosen democracy as the form of government. Today, most of the world's powerful countries, international organizations and political science experts see democracy as a natual choice in comparison to dictatorship. Yet democracy remains a far more complicated form of government as compared to dictatorship.
Some decisions that for the common good of the entire community might require some group of people to make some sacrifice e.g. farmers might have to leave their family land and go to some other place in order to make space available for some new industry. While this new industry can bring prosperity to the whole area and can offer better jobs and standard of living to the farmer's own children, many farmers would be reluctant to leave the land that has been ploughed by their forefathers, espacially if the land is fertile. Convincing them to accept monetary compensation or another piece of land can be a very difficult task in a democracy as compared to a dictatorship. Displacing millions of people for building a dam, as the the case when constructing the Three Gorges Dam in China, might have been much more cumbersome in a democracy.
Democratic system of governments generally have an extensive system of election of government. Dictatorships do not need to spend effort in...