The concept of quality has become at the core of effective management and leadership in our modern times, and programs like Total Quality Management and Six Sigma have been at the heart of many companies' success. that quality needs to be built into every level of a company, and become part of everything the organization does. This Document will be discussing the theories of two of the progenitors of TQM. Dr. W. Edwards Deming and Philip B. Crosby
Dr. W. Edwards Deming
W Edwards Deming was an American statistician who was credited with the rise of Japan as a manufacturing nation, and with the invention of Total Quality Management (TQM). In 1960 he was awarded a medal by the Japanese Emperor for his services to that country's industry. Deming returned to the US and spent some years in obscurity before the publication of his book "Out of the crisis" in 1982. In this book, Deming set out 14 points which, if applied to US manufacturing industry, would he believed, save the US from industrial doom at the hands of the Japanese. Although Deming does not use the term Total Quality Management in his book, it is credited with launching the movement. Most of the central ideas of TQM are contained in "Out of the crisis". The key to understanding Deming’s 14 points lies in Deming's thoughts about variation. Variation was seen by Deming as the disease that threatened US manufacturing. The more variation - in the length of parts supposed to be uniform, in delivery times, in prices, in work practices - the more waste, he reasoned. From this premise, he set out his 14 points for management:
1. Create a constant purpose toward improvement.
* Plan for quality in the long term.
* Resist reacting with short-term solutions.
* Don't just do the same things better – find better things to do. * Predict and prepare for future challenges, and always have the goal of getting better. 2. Adopt the new philosophy.
* Embrace quality throughout the organization.
* Put your customers' needs first, rather than react to competitive pressure – and design products and services to meet those needs. * Be prepared for a major change in the way business is done. It's about leading, not simply managing. * Create your quality vision, and implement it.
3. Stop depending on inspections.
* Inspections are costly and unreliable – and they don't improve quality, they merely find a lack of quality. * Build quality into the process from start to finish.
* Don't just find what you did wrong – eliminate the "wrongs" altogether. * Use statistical control methods – not physical inspections alone – to prove that the process is working. 4. Use a single supplier for any one item.
* Quality relies on consistency – the less variation you have in the input, the less variation you'll have in the output. * Look at suppliers as your partners in quality. Encourage them to spend time improving their own quality – they shouldn't compete for your business based on price alone. * Analyze the total cost to you, not just the initial cost of the product. * Use quality statistics to ensure that suppliers meet your quality standards. 5. Improve constantly and forever.
* Continuously improve your systems and processes. Deming promoted the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach to process analysis and improvement. * Emphasize training and education so everyone can do their jobs better.
6. Use training on the job.
* Train for consistency to help reduce variation.
* Build a foundation of common knowledge.
* Allow workers to understand their roles in the "big picture." * Encourage staff to learn from one another, and provide a culture and environment for effective teamwork. 7. Implement leadership.
* Expect your supervisors and managers to understand their workers and the processes they use. * Don't simply supervise – provide support and...