Dementia is characterized by evidence of short term and long term memory impairment with impaired abstract thinking, impaired judgment, disturbances of higher cortical thinking, and personality changes. It is basically a progressive decline of cerebral utility such as logic, remembrance, language, problem solving, or concentration. This disease greatly harms the day by day performance of a person and is seen more in older people, however, is not a normal part of aging.
The aim of this dissertation is to analyze the effects of dementia in older people and to suggest possible solutions for its prevention and treatment. 1.2.Objectives
Primary objective of this research is to see how effective the health care management systems are for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dementia syndrome specially keeping in view the population of UK. 1.3.Dementia defined
The International Dictionary of Psychology (Sutherland, 1989) defines it as “an impairment or loss of mental ability, particularly of the capacity to remember, but also including impaired thought, speech, judgment, and personality. It occurs in senile dementia and in conditions involving widespread damage to the brain or narrowing of the blood vessels”. In the preceding definition, Sutherland introduced a different term, senile dementia. Senile is derived from the Latin adverb senex pertaining to age or growing old. This shows that some dementias occur at later or older ages for reasons not known. Definition of senile dementia as per The International Dictionary of Psychology is that it is “a progressive syndrome starting in old age with no clear cause, in which intellect, memory, and judgment are impaired; it is often accompanied by apathy or irritability” (Sutherland, 1989, p. 397). 1.4.How common is dementia?
In England only, there are approximately 570,000 people living with dementia. It is expected that this number would double in the coming 30 years (Barberger-Gateau, 2007). Generally dementia arises in people who are 65 years of age above. The chances of developing it are more as one gets old as compare to young people. Roughly, it is anticipated that dementia occurs in:
•1.4% of men and 1.5% of women aged between 65 and 69,
•3.1% of men and 2.2% of women aged between 70 and 74,
•5.6% of men and 7.1% of women aged between 75 and 79,
•10.2 % of men and 14.1% of women aged between 80 and 84, and •19.6% of men and 27.5% of women aged 85 or over.
In the preceding paragraphs, we will discuss in detail the different kinds of dementia that occur to people at older age along with a number of causes that lead towards this syndrome. 2.1.Types of dementia
Following are the different types of dementia recognized so far (Davidson, 2005): •Alzheimer's disease, where tiny clusters of protein, known as plaques, start to build up around brain cells. This upsets the regular workings of the brain. •Vascular dementia, where troubles with blood distribution result in uneven supply of blood and oxygen to certain parts of the brain. •Dementia with Lewy bodies, where irregular structures, known as Lewy bodies, grow inside the brain. •Frontotemporal dementia, where the two parts of the brain, frontal and temporal lobes, start to shrink. Not like other types of dementia, frontotemporal dementia typically grows in people who are below 65 years of age and is very rare than other types of dementia. 2.2.Different Kinds of Dementia
Different kinds of dementing disorders exist. One way of classification is according to parts of the brain being affected. Some frequently used classifications are as follows: •Cortical dementia: This type of dementia damages the brain particularly affecting the brain's cortex, or outer layer. Problems such as memory, language, thinking, and social behavior results due to this disoder. •Sub cortical dementia: It affects parts of the brain below the cortex and...