In all over the world electricity demand is getting higher day by day. Most of the electricity is taken by the fossil fuels. These fuels are pollutant and releasing GHG (Green house gases).Now a day’s Renewable energy power plants are rolling a part of meet the electricity demand. They are non-conventional and eco friendly. Solar, Wind, Hydro, Biomass, OTEC, Wave, Geothermal, Hydrogen & fuel cell these all are the types of renewable energy. Most of the electricity demand is raised from the urban areas. In rural areas electrification is very less. Because after the power generation of electricity the transmission and the distribution systems are only available on the urban areas but not in the rural areas. Rural areas are simply used to call as Remote area. Actually the rural areas are placed so far away from the transmission and distribution stations. To satisfy the rural areas electricity renewable energy systems are used. The renewable energy systems are placed near to the remote area and the electricity is directly goes through the usage of rural area’s houses. Energy Efficiency & Conservation has also assumed enhanced importance with a view to conserve depleting energy resources. Demand Side Management is the process of managing the energy consumption and consumers energy expenses. DSM used to reduce the electricity shortage and improving the reliability of the electricity supply.
1.1 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
Energy which comes from the natural resources but they are not continuous. Renewable energy sources (RER) are sustainable and they are less pollutant. Renewable energy sources are classified as Solar, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal, OTEC, Wave and Hydrogen & fuel cell. Renewable energy sources are an indigenous resource available in considerable quantities to all developing nations and capable, in principle, of having a significant local, regional or national economic impact. The use of renewable energy could help to conserve foreign exchange and generate local employment if conservation technologies are designed, manufactured, assembled and installed locally. 1.1.1 SOLAR ENERGY
The sun radiates energy uniformly in all directions in the form of electromagnetic waves. The sun provides the energy needed to sustain life in our solar system. It is a clean, exhaustible, abundantly, and universally available source of renewable energy. The major drawbacks of solar energy are that it is a dilute form of energy, which is available intermittently and uncertainly, and not steadily and continuously. Solar energy can be directly converted into other form of energy such as heat and electricity.
1.1.2 WIND ENERGY
Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with movement of large masses of air. These motions results from uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, creating temperature, density and pressure differences. It is estimated that 1 per cent of all solar radiation falling on the face of the earth is converted into kinetic energy of the atmosphere, 30 per cent of which occurs in the lowest 1000m of elevation. It is thus an indirect form of solar energy. In contrast to diurnal availability of direct solar radiation, Wind energy can available continuously throughout 24-hours day for much longer periods, though it can vary a great extent including no wind periods. It is clean, cheap, and eco-friendly renewable source. Wind energy is harnessed as mechanical energy with the help of wind turbine. In wind turbine kinetic energy of air is converted into mechanical energy thus the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy by using generator.
1.2 STAND ALONE SYSTEM (SAS)
It means electricity is gained from the renewable energy sources and directly use by the end users. Stand alone systems are placed near the users. It is non conventional. It has disadvantages due to some intermittence. Because solar and wind energy will not available at all time....