DEMAND FOR MONEY
* What is Demand for Money?
The demand for money represents the desire of households and businesses to hold assets in a form that can be easily exchanged for goods and services. Spendability, or liquidity, is the key aspect of money that distinguishes it from other types of assets. For this reason, the demand for money is sometimes called the demand for liquidity. * Many factors influence our total demand for money balances. The four main factors are 1. the level of prices
2. the level of interest rates
3. the level of real national output (real GDP)
4. the pace of financial innovation
* Three Reasons or Motives for a Large Demand of Money
Economists have identified three primary motives for holding money: • To settle transactions, since money is the medium of exchange. • As a precautionary store of liquidity, in the event of unexpected need. • To reduce the riskiness of a portfolio of assets by including some money in the portfolio, since the value of money is very stable compared with that of stocks, bonds, or real estate.
* Transaction Motives
* Money is an essential element in order to have a purchasing power. * This is money used for the purchase of goods and services. The transactions demand for money is positively related to real incomes and inflation. As an individual's income rises or as prices in the shops increase, he will have to hold more cash to carry out his everyday transactions. The quantity of nominal money demand is therefore proportional to the price level in the economy. * The transactions motive for demanding money arises from the fact that most transactions involve an exchange of money. Because it is necessary to have money available for transactions, money will be demanded. The total number of transactions made in an economy tends to increase over time as income rises. Hence, as income or GDP rises, the transactions demand for money also rises. * The transactions motive for money demand results from the need for liquidity for day-to-day transactions in the near future. This need arises when income is received only occasionally (say once per month) in discrete amounts but expenditures occur continuously.
* Households and firms hold money or demand money in order to conduct regular payments of goods and services they purchase from the market. * The households and firms hold money to pay for daily expenses such as food, clothing, transportation, and rentals. * In other words, people hold money for transactions purposes – hence the motive is for transaction.
* Precautionary Motive
* This is money held to cover unexpected items of expenditure. As with the transactions demand for money, it is positively correlated with real incomes and inflation. * People often demand money as a precaution against an uncertain future. Unexpected expenses, such as medical or car repair bills, often require immediate payment. The need to have money available in such situations is referred to as the precautionary motive for demanding money * People need to be financially secure in the future, especially in financing or paying for unforeseen events. * Example: Money is used for emergency expenses such as hospitalization, accidents, contingency funds for unidentified household or business expenses. * Speculative Motives
* This is money not held for transaction purposes but in place of other financial assets, usually because they are expected to fall in price. * People want to earn the highest possible income from their different investments. Hence, they hold money to invest into assets or business prospects that have a promising steady flow of returns or income. * It depends on the decisions of households and firms to hold other assets that are liquid and free risks of depreciation in terms of money. * People hold...