Delivery Room CPAP
Delivery Room Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Feasibility Trial. Finer NN, Carlo WA, Duara S, et al. PEDIATRICS (September 2004); 114:651-657. Objective. Although earlier studies have suggested that early continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) may be beneficial in reducing ventilator dependence and subsequent chronic lung disease in the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, the time of initiation of CPAP has varied, and there are no prospective studies of infants who have received CPAP or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) from initial resuscitation in the delivery room (DR). Current practice for the ELBW infant includes early intubation and the administration of prophylactic surfactant, often in the DR. The feasibility of initiating CPAP in the DR and continuing this therapy without intubation for surfactant has never been determined prospectively in a population of ELBW infants. This study was designed to determine the feasibility of randomizing ELBW infants of <28 weeks’ gestation to CPAP/PEEP or no CPAP/PEEP during resuscitation immediately after delivery, avoiding routine DR intubation for surfactant administration, initiating CPAP on neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and assessing compliance with subsequent intubation criteria. Methods. Infants who were of <28 weeks’ gestation, who were born in 5 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network NICUs from July 2002 to January 2003, and for whom a decision had been made to provide full treatment after birth were randomized to receive either CPAP/PEEP or not using a neonatal T-piece resuscitator (NeoPuff). Infants would not be intubated for the sole purpose of surfactant administration in the DR. After admission to the NICU, all nonintubated infants were placed on CPAP and were to be intubated for surfactant administration only after meeting...
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