Delhi Jal Board

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Delhi Jal Board-Summer Training Report 2012

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Delhi Jal Board-Summer Training Report 2012

Introduction

Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources. Sewage is correctly the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to mean any waste water. "Sewage" includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer or similar structure, sometimes in a cesspool emptier. The physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. Used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal is termed sewerage.

There are various types of chemicals found in wastewater, Depending upon the source from where it is being discharged. Depending upon the nature of the sewage it can be grouped as follows: Domestic Sewage: - It includes human excreta as well as discharges from kitchen, baths, lavatories etc. from public and private buildings. 2) Industrial Sewage: - Industrial Sewage or wastewater may be regarded as the liquid waste water in which industrial effluents are present as main waste. 1)

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Delhi Jal Board-Summer Training Report 2012

Storm Water: - This is the rain water which flows as runoff from streets, open yards etc. 4) Combined Sewage: - It is the combination of domestic sewage, industrial waste and storm water. 3)

The need to improve public health protection prompted a number of state health departments in the United States to establish guidelines and regulations to control the public health aspects of wastewater. These initial guidelines provided a rational basis for continuing wastewater for meeting strict public health criteria. One important criterion was to restrict the use of partially treated sewage to crops that are generally cooked before being consumed and allow only water that has through advanced wastewater treatment and microbial disinfection to be applied to crops normally eaten raw.

Water bodies have become more and more polluted owing to discharge of industrial waste. Therefore, it has been the chief concern of scientists, engineers and ecologists to decrease the water pollution level around the globe to maintain ring viability and ecological balance. Until 1900's human wastes were simply dumped as raw sewage into the nearest stream or river. But later on when a number of diseases were linked to the waste water, the treatment of waste water was taken up seriously.

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Delhi Jal Board-Summer Training Report 2012
Sewage, before being disposed off either in river, streams or on land, has generally to be treated, so as to make it safe. The degree of treatment required however depends upon the characteristics of source of disposal. The purpose of waste water treatment is to remove the contaminants from water so that the treated water can meet the acceptable quality standard. The quality standard usually depends upon whether water will be reused or discharged into a receiving stream. Many nations adopted the very strict microbial standards for wastewater use that were developed in California (USA) and elsewhere. In reality these microbial standards were almost unattainable in most wastewater treatment systems, therefore many poorer or developing countries abandoned plans for wastewater use. The primary reason was the realization that producing effluent with a microbial quality sufficient for unrestricted irrigation required costly sophisticated treatment technology. The result has been little improvement in public health conditions associated with...
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